Woman’s Institute Library of Cookery / Volume 4: Salads and Sandwiches; Cold and Frozen Desserts; Cakes, Cookies and Puddings; Pastries and Pies

Produced by Charles Aldarondo, Keren Vergon, Steve Schulze
and PG Distributed Proofreaders


WOMAN’S INSTITUTE LIBRARY OF COOKERY

VOLUME FOUR

SALADS AND SANDWICHES

COLD AND FROZEN DESSERTS

CAKES, COOKIES, AND PUDDINGS

PASTRIES AND PIES

WOMAN’S INSTITUTE OF DOMESTIC ARTS AND SCIENCES, Inc.


PREFACE

This volume, the fourth of the Woman’s Institute Library of Cookery, deals with salads, sandwiches, cold desserts, cakes, both large and small, puddings, pastry, and pies. Such foods constitute some of the niceties of the diet, but skill in their preparation signifies at once a housewife’s mastery of the science of cookery.

In Salads and Sandwiches are presented so simply the secrets of appetizing salads that they can be grasped by even a novice, and sandwiches of numerous varieties, from those appropriate for afternoon teas to those suitable for the main dish in the meal, are so treated that they appear to rise above the ordinary place usually accorded them. One need never hesitate to prepare a menu for an afternoon or evening social affair or the salad course in a luncheon or dinner after a study of this part of the volume.

A glance through Cold and Frozen Desserts will convince one very quickly that a large number of the desserts that complete our meals are served cold. The mere mention of custards, gelatine desserts, and such frozen mixtures as ice creams, ices, frappés, sherbets, mousses, parfaits, and biscuits, all of which are explained here, is sufficient to indicate that this is an extremely delightful part of the subject of cookery. Entertaining takes on a new and simplified meaning when one knows how to make and serve such dishes.

To be able to make cakes and puddings well is one of the ambitions of the modern housewife, and she has an opportunity to realize it in a study of Cakes, Cookies, and Puddings, Parts 1 and 2. Sweet food in excess is undesirable, but in a moderate quantity it is required in each person’s diet and may be obtained in this form without harm if it is properly prepared.

The two classes of cakes–butter and sponge–are treated in detail both as to the methods of making and the required ingredients, and numerous recipes are given which will enable the housewife to provide both plain and fancy cakes for ordinary and special occasions. Puddings that are prepared by boiling, steaming, and baking, and the sauces that make them appetizing, receive a goodly share of attention.

Pastries and Pies completes this volume, rounding out, as it were, the housewife’s understanding of dessert making. To many persons, pastry making is an intricate matter, but with the principles thoroughly explained and each step clearly illustrated, delicious pies of every variety, as well as puff-paste dainties, may be had with very little effort.

Upon the completion of a study of this volume, the housewife will find herself equipped with a knowledge of the way to prepare many delicacies for her meals. While these are probably not so important in the diet as the more fundamental foods, they have a definite place and should receive the attention they deserve.


CONTENTS

SALADS AND SANDWICHES

Salads in the Diet,
Composition of Salads,
Ingredients of Salads,
Relation of Salads to Meals,
Principles of Salad Making,
Serving Salads,
Salad Dressings and Their Preparation,
Vegetable Salads,
Combination Fruit-and-Vegetable Salads,
Fruit Salads,
High-Protein Salads,
General Principles of Sandwich Making,
Bread-and-Butter Sandwiches,
Vegetable Sandwiches,
Fruit Sandwiches,
High-Protein Sandwiches,
Hot Sandwiches,
Open Sandwiches,
Canapes,

COLD AND FROZEN DESSERTS

The Dessert in the Meal,
Composition and Food Value of Desserts,
Principles of Dessert Making,
Sauces and Whipped Cream,
Principles of Custard Making,
Recipes for Custards and Related Desserts,
Principles of Gelatine Making,
Recipes for Gelatine Desserts,
Principles of Frozen-Dessert Making,
Procedure in Freezing Desserts,
Ice Creams,
Frozen Custards,
Ices,
Frappés,
Sherbets,
Mousses, Parfaits, and Biscuits,
Molding Frozen Desserts,
Serving Frozen Desserts,

CAKES, COOKIES, AND PUDDINGS

Cake and Pudding Mixtures in the Diet,
Ingredients Used in Cakes,
General Classes of Cakes,
General Equipment for Cake Making,
Procedure in Cake Making,
Sponge Cakes and Their Preparation,
Recipes for Sponge Cake and Its Variations,
Butter Cakes and Their Preparation,
Recipes for Butter Cakes,
Cake Icings and Fillings,
Varieties of Small Cakes,
Cup and Drop Cakes,
Cookies,
Kisses and Macaroons,
Ladyfingers and Sponge Drops,
Cakes Made With Yeast,
Cream Puffs and Éclairs,
Doughnuts and Crullers,
Pudding Sauces,
Preparation of Puddings,
Recipes for Puddings,

PASTRIES AND PIES

Nature of Pastries and Pies,
Ingredients Used for Pastry,
Utensils for Pastry Making,
Methods of Mixing Pastry,
Making and Baking Pastry for Pies,
Utilizing Left-Over Pastry,
Recipes for Pastry,
Double-Crust Pies,
One-Crust Pies,
Puff Paste,
Serving Pastry,


SALADS AND SANDWICHES

SALADS IN THE DIET

1. So much variety exists among salads that it is somewhat difficult to give a comprehensive definition of this class of foods. In general, however, salads may be considered as a dish of green herbs or vegetables, sometimes cooked, and usually chopped or sliced, sometimes mixed with fruit or with cooked and chopped cold meat, fish, etc., and generally served with a dressing. For the most part, salads take their name from their chief ingredient, as, for instance, chicken salad, tomato salad, pineapple salad, etc. Just what place salads have in the meal depends on the salad itself. A high-protein salad, such as lobster salad, should take the place of the meat course, whereas, a light salad of vegetables or fruits may be used as an additional course.

2. IMPORTANCE OF SALADS.–Salads are often considered to be a dish of little importance; that is, something that may be left out or added to a meal without affecting it to any great extent. While this may be the case in a meal that is composed of a sufficient variety of foods, salads have a definite place in meals as they are planned in the majority of households. Often there is a tendency to limit green vegetables or fresh fruits in the diet, but if the members of a family are to be fed an ideal diet it is extremely important that some of these foods enter into each day’s meals, a fact that is often overlooked. There is no more effective nor appetizing way in which to include them in a meal than in the serving of salads. In addition, salads make a strong appeal to the appetite and at the same time are beneficial so far as the health of the family is concerned.

3. PURPOSES OF SALADS.–Because of the wide variety of salads and the large number of ingredients from which a selection may be made in their preparation, salads can be used for various purposes. The housewife who gives much attention to the artistic side of the serving of food in her home will often use a salad to carry out a color scheme in her meal. This is, of course, the least valuable use that salads have, but it is a point that should not be overlooked. The chief purpose of salads in a meal is to provide something that the rest of the foods served in the meal lack.

Even though it is not desired to use the salad to carry out a color scheme, it should always be made an attractive dish. As is well known, nothing is so unappetizing as a salad in which the ingredients have not been properly prepared, the garnish is not fresh and crisp, or the dressing and salad ingredients have been combined in such a way as to appear messy or stale looking. There is no excuse for such conditions, and they need not exist if proper attention is given to the preparation of the salad.

4. SELECTION OF SALADS.–Although salads, through their variety, offer the housewife an opportunity to vary her meals, they require a little attention as to their selection if a properly balanced meal is to be the result. Salads that are high in food value or contain ingredients similar to those found in the other dishes served in the meal, should be avoided with dinners or with other heavy meals. For instance, a fish or a meat salad should not be served with a dinner, for it would supply a quantity of protein to a meal that is already sufficiently high in this food substance because of the fact that meat also is included. Such a salad, however, has a place in a very light luncheon or a supper, for it helps to balance such a meal. The correct salad to serve with a dinner that contains a number of heavy dishes is a vegetable salad, if enough vegetables are not already included, or a fruit salad, if the dessert does not consist of fruit. In case a fruit salad is selected, it is often made to serve for both the salad and the dessert course.

5. SALAD ACCOMPANIMENTS.–In addition to the ingredients used in the preparation of salads, dressings usually form an important part. These vary greatly as to ingredients and consequently as to composition, but most of them contain considerable fat and therefore increase the food value of the salad. Then, too, an accompaniment of some kind is generally served with salads to make them more attractive and more pleasing to the taste. This may be a wafer or a cracker of some description or a small sandwich made of bread cut into thin slices and merely buttered or buttered and then spread with a filling of some sort. Such accompaniments, of course, are not a necessity, but they add enough to the salad to warrant their use.

COMPOSITION OF SALADS

6. The composition, as well as the total food value, of salads depends entirely on the ingredients of which they are composed. With an understanding of the composition of the ingredients used in salads, the housewife will be able to judge fairly accurately whether the salad is low, medium, or high in food value, and whether it is high in protein, fat, or carbohydrate. This matter is important, and should receive consideration from all who prepare this class of food.

7. PROTEIN IN SALADS.–As may be expected, salads that are high in protein have for their basis, or contain, such ingredients as meat, fish, fowl, cheese, eggs, nuts, or dried beans. The amount of protein that such a salad contains naturally varies with the quantity of high-protein food that is used. For instance, a salad that has hard-cooked eggs for its foundation contains considerable protein, but one in which a slice or two of hard-cooked egg is used for a garnish cannot be said to be a high-protein salad.

8. FAT IN SALADS.–The fat in salads is more often included as a part of the dressing than in any other way, but the quantity introduced may be very large. A French dressing or a mayonnaise dressing, as a rule, contains a sufficient proportion of some kind of oil to make the salad in which it is used somewhat high in fat. In fact, salads are often used as a means of introducing fat into a meal, and whenever this is done they should be considered as one of the dishes that supply energy-producing food material to the meals in which they are served.

9. CARBOHYDRATE IN SALADS.–For the most part, salads do not contain carbohydrate in any quantity. If fruits are used, the salad will, of course, contain a certain amount of sugar. Salads in which potatoes, peas, beets, and other vegetables are used also contain starch or sugar in varying quantities. However, with the exception of potato salad, salads are probably never taken as a source of carbohydrate.

10. MINERAL SALTS IN SALADS.–In the majority of salads, mineral salts are an important ingredient. Meat and fish salads are the only ones in which the mineral salts are not especially desirable, but they can be improved in this respect if a certain amount of vegetables are mixed with them. Green-vegetable salads are the most valuable sources of mineral salts, and fruit salads come next. In addition, these two varieties of salads contain vitamines, which are substances necessary to maintain health. Cheese and egg salads, which are high-protein salads, are also valuable for the vitamines they supply.

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