Produced by Charles Aldarondo, Keren Vergon, Steve Schulze
and PG Distributed Proofreaders
Produced by Charles Aldarondo, Keren Vergon, Steve Schulze
WOMAN’S INSTITUTE LIBRARY OF COOKERY
POULTRY AND GAME
FISH AND SHELL FISH
WOMAN’S INSTITUTE OF DOMESTIC ARTS AND SCIENCES, Inc.
This volume, which is the third of the Woman’s Institute Library of Cookery, includes soups and the high-protein foods, meat, poultry, game, and fish. It therefore contains information that is of interest to every housewife, for these foods occupy an important place in the majority of meals.
In her study of Soup, she will come to a thorough appreciation of the place that soup occupies in the meal, its chief purposes, and its economic value. All the different kinds of soups are classified and discussed, recipes for making them, as well as the stocks used in their preparation, receiving the necessary attention. The correct serving of soup is not overlooked; nor are the accompaniments and garnishes so often required to make the soup course of the meal an attractive one.
In Meat, Parts 1 and 2, are described the various cuts of the different kinds of meat–beef, veal, lamb, mutton, and pork–and the part of the animal from which they are obtained, the way in which to judge a good piece of meat by its appearance, and what to do with it from the time it is purchased until all of it is used. All the methods applicable to the cooking of meats are emphasized in this section. Supplementing the text are numerous illustrations showing the ways in which meat cuts are obtained. Besides, many of them are so reproduced that actual cuts of meat may be readily recognized. Equipped with this knowledge, the housewife need give no concern to the selection, care, and cooking of every variety of meat.
In Poultry and Game, the selection and preparation of all kinds of poultry receive attention. While such food is somewhat of a luxury in a great many homes, it helps to relieve the monotony of the usual protein foods, and it often supplies just what is desired for special occasions. Familiarity with poultry and game is a decided asset to any housewife, and success with their cooking and serving is assured through a study of this text, for every step in their preparation is clearly explained and illustrated.
In Fish and Shell Fish, the other high-protein food is treated in full as to its composition, food value, purchase, care, and preparation. Such interesting processes as the boning, skinning, and filleting of fish are not only carefully explained but clearly illustrated. In addition to recipes for fresh, salt, smoked, and canned fish are given directions for the preparation of all edible shell fish and recipes for the various stuffings and sauces served with fish.
Too much cannot be said about the importance of the subjects covered in this volume and the necessity for a thorough understanding of them on the part of every housewife. Indeed, a mastery of them will mean for her an acquaintance with the main part of the meal, and when she knows how to prepare these foods, the other dishes will prove a simple matter.
Value of Soup
Classification of Soups
Uses and Varieties of Soup Stock
The Stock Pot
Principal Ingredients in Soup
Processes Involved in Making Stock
Recipes for Soup and Soup Accompaniments
Stocks and Clear Soups
Heavy Thick Soups
Soup Accompaniments and Garnishes
Value of Meat as Food
Structure and Composition of Meat
Purchase and Care of Meat
Purposes of Cooking Meat
Methods of Cooking Meat
Time Required for Cooking Meat
Cuts of Beef
Steaks and Their Preparation
Roasts and Their Preparation
Preparation of Stews and Corned Beef
Beef Organs and Their Preparation
Trying Out Suet and Other Fats
Preparation of Left-Over Beef
Cuts of Veal and Their Uses
Veal Cuts and Their Preparation
Veal Organs and Their Preparation
Preparation of Left-Over Veal
Mutton and Lamb–Comparison
Cuts of Mutton and Lamb
Preparation of Roasts, Chops, and Stews
Preparation of Left-Over Lamb and Mutton
Cuts of Pork
Fresh Pork and Its Preparation
Cured Pork and Its Preparation
Preparation of Left-Over Pork
Serving and Carving of Meat
Sausages and Meat Preparations
Principles of Deep-Fat Frying
Application of Deep-Fat Frying
Poultry as a Food
Selection of Poultry
Selection of Chicken
Selection of Poultry Other Than Chicken
Composition of Poultry
Preparation of Chicken for Cooking
Preparation of Poultry Other Than Chicken for Cooking
Cooking of Poultry
Stuffing for Roast Poultry
Dishes from Left-Over Poultry
Serving and Carving of Poultry
Recipes for Game
Fish in the Diet
Composition and Food Value of Fish
Purchase and Care of Fish
Methods of Cooking Fish
Recipes for Fish Sauces and Stuffings
Recipes for Fresh Fish
Recipes for Salt and Smoked Fish
Recipes for Canned Fish
Recipes for Left-Over Fish
Shell Fish–Nature, Varieties, and Use
Oysters and Their Preparation
Clams and Their Preparation
Scallops and Their Preparation
Lobsters and Their Preparation
Crabs and Their Preparation
Shrimp and Their Preparation
VALUE OF SOUP
1. SOUP is a liquid food that is prepared by boiling meat or vegetables, or both, in water and then seasoning and sometimes thickening the liquid that is produced. It is usually served as the first course of a dinner, but it is often included in a light meal, such as luncheon. While some persons regard the making of soup as difficult, nothing is easier when one knows just what is required and how to proceed. The purpose of this Section, therefore, is to acquaint the housewife with the details of soup making, so that she may provide her family with appetizing and nutritious soups that make for both economy and healthfulness.
2. It is interesting to note the advancement that has been made with this food. The origin of soup, like that of many foods, dates back to practically the beginning of history. However, the first soup known was probably not made with meat. For instance, the mess of pottage for which Esau sold his birthright was soup made of red lentils. Later on meat came to be used as the basis for soup because of the agreeable and appetizing flavor it provides. Then, at one time in France a scarcity of butter and other fats that had been used to produce moistness and richness in foods, brought about such clear soups as bouillon and consommé. These, as well as other liquid foods, found much favor, for about the time they were devised it came to be considered vulgar to chew food. Thus, at various periods, and because of different emergencies, particular kinds of soup have been introduced, until now there are many kinds from which the housewife may choose when she desires a dish that will start a meal in the right way and at the same time appeal to the appetite.
3. VALUE OF SOUP IN THE MEAL.–Not all persons have the same idea regarding the value of soup as a part of a meal. Some consider it to be of no more value than so much water, claiming that it should be fed to none but children or sick persons who are unable to take solid food. On the other hand, many persons believe that soup contains the very essence of all that is nourishing and sustaining in the foods of which it is made. This difference of opinion is well demonstrated by the ideas that have been advanced concerning this food. Some one has said that soup is to a meal what a portico is to a palace or an overture to an opera, while another person, who evidently does not appreciate this food, has said that soup is the preface to a dinner and that any work really worth while is sufficient in itself and needs no preface. Such opinions, however, must be reconciled if the true value of this food is to be appreciated.
4. Probably the best way in which to come to a definite conclusion as to the importance of soup is to consider the purposes it serves in a meal. When its variety and the ingredients of which it is composed are thought of, soup serves two purposes: first, as an appetizer taken at the beginning of a meal to stimulate the appetite and aid in the flow of digestive juices in the stomach; and, secondly, as an actual part of the meal, when it must contain sufficient nutritive material to permit it to be considered as a part of the meal instead of merely an addition. Even in its first and minor purpose, the important part that soup plays in many meals is not hard to realize, for it is just what is needed to arouse the flagging appetite and create a desire for nourishing food. But in its second purpose, the real value of soup is evident. Whenever soup contains enough nutritive material for it to take the place of some dish that would otherwise be necessary, its value cannot be overestimated.
If soup is thought of in this way, the prejudice that exists against it in many households will be entirely overcome. But since much of this prejudice is due to the fact that the soup served is often unappetizing in both flavor and appearance, sufficient attention should be given to the making of soup to have this food attractive enough to appeal to the appetite rather than discourage it. Soup should not be greasy nor insipid in flavor, neither should it be served in large quantities nor without the proper accompaniment. A small quantity of well-flavored, attractively served soup cannot fail to meet the approval of any family when it is served as the first course of the meal.
5. GENERAL CLASSES OF SOUP.–Soups are named in various ways, according to material, quality, etc.; but the two purposes for which soup is used have led to the placing of the numerous kinds into two general classes. In the first class are grouped those which serve as appetizers, such as bouillon, consommé, and some other broths and clear soups. In the second class are included those eaten for their nutritive effect, such as cream soups, purées, and bisques. From these two classes of soup, the one that will correspond with the rest of the meal and make it balance properly is the one to choose. For instance, a light soup that is merely an appetizer should be served with a heavy dinner, whereas a heavy, highly nutritious soup should be used with a luncheon or a light meal.
6. ECONOMIC VALUE OF SOUP.–Besides having an important place in the meal of which it forms a part, soup is very often an economy, for it affords the housewife a splendid opportunity to utilize many left-overs. With the French people, who excel in the art of soup making chiefly because of their clever adaptation of seasoning to foods, their pot-au-feu is a national institution and every kitchen has its stock pot. Persons who believe in the strictest food economy use a stock pot, since it permits left-overs to be utilized in an attractive and palatable way. In fact, there is scarcely anything in the way of fish, meat, fowl, vegetables, and cereals that cannot be used in soup making, provided such ingredients are cared for in the proper way. Very often the first glance at the large number of ingredients listed in a soup recipe creates the impression that soup must be a very complicated thing. Such, however, is not the case. In reality, most of the soup ingredients are small quantities of things used for flavoring, and it is by the proper blending of these that appetizing soups are secured.
CLASSIFICATION OF SOUPS
7. The two general classes of soup already mentioned permit of numerous methods of classification. For instance, soups are sometimes named from the principal ingredient or an imitation of it, as the names potato soup, beef soup, macaroni soup, mock-turtle soup testify. Again, both stimulating and nutritious soups may be divided into thin and thick soups, thin soups usually being clear, and thick soups, because of their nature, cloudy. When the quality of soups is considered, they are placed in still different classes and are called broth, bisque, consommé, purée, and so on. Another important classification of soups results from the nationality of the people who use them. While soups are classified in other ways, it will be sufficient for all practical purposes if the housewife understands these three principal classes.
8. CLASSES DENOTING CONSISTENCY.–As has already been pointed out, soups are of only two kinds when their consistency is thought of, namely, clear soups and thick soups.
CLEAR SOUPS are those made from carefully cleared stock, or soup foundation, and flavored or garnished with a material from which the soup usually takes its name. There are not many soups of this kind, bouillon and consommé being the two leading varieties, but in order to be palatable, they require considerable care in making.
THICK SOUPS are also made from stock, but milk, cream, water, or any mixture of these may also be used as a basis, and to it may be added for thickening meat, fish, vegetables, eggs, or grain or some other starchy material. Soups of this kind are often made too thick, and as such soups are not appetizing, care must be taken to have them just right in consistency.
9. CLASSES DENOTING QUALITY.–When attention is given to the quality of soup, this food divides itself into several varieties, namely, broth, cream soup, bisque, chowder, and purée.
BROTHS have for their foundation a clear stock. They are sometimes a thin soup, but other times they are made quite thick with vegetables, rice, barley, or other material, when they are served as a substantial part of a meal.
CREAM SOUPS are highly nutritious and are of great variety. They have for their foundation a thin cream sauce, but to this are always added vegetables, meat, fish, or grains.