Names: and Their Meaning / A Book for the Curious

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NAMES: AND THEIR MEANING.

T. Fisher Unwin printer’s mark

NAMES:
AND THEIR MEANING

A BOOK FOR THE CURIOUS

BY
LEOPOLD WAGNER

THIRD AND REVISED EDITION.

London
T. FISHER UNWIN
PATERNOSTER SQUARE
MDCCCXCIII


INTRODUCTION.

Not the least difficult matter in connection with the present work has been the choice of a title. The one finally determined upon is far from satisfactory, because it scarcely suggests the scope of the subject treated. True enough, the single word Nomenclature offered itself as a suitable title; but this is really a French word, derived, of course, from the Latin, and although it has been admitted into our vocabulary simply owing to the lack of an English equivalent, its use is properly restricted to the classification of technical terms in relation to a particular branch of science. In a scientific sense, then, the word Nomenclature finds a ready acceptance; but for the classification of the names of persons, of places, and of things, it is altogether too pedantic. A young friend of the author the other day, on being informed, in answer to his inquiry, that this work would probably be entitled “The Curiosities of Nomenclature,” promptly asked whether it might not be as well to explain, first of all, what the word Nomenclature meant. Now, the author does not believe for one moment that any intelligent person who took up this volume would be at a loss to judge of its contents from the title, that is, supposing the word Nomenclature appeared on the page; nevertheless, his young friend’s suggestion reminded him that a book intended not for the scientific and learned, but for general reference, should bear a title easily comprehended by all classes of the community. The title originally chosen has, therefore, been rejected in favour of one less pretentious and more matter-of-fact: if it is not sufficiently expressive, the fault must be attributed to the poverty of the English language.

Of all the “Ologies,” Philology, or the science of language, is the most seductive; and that branch of it known as Etymology, which traces the derivation and combination of the words of a language from its primary roots, possesses an interest—one might almost say a fascination—for all, when once the attention has been arrested by it. This fact is proved by the popularity of Archbishop Trench’s published lectures on “The Study of Words,” which have now reached a nineteenth edition. But it is not to an examination of the dictionary words of the English language that the present volume is devoted. Bearing in mind that several excellent works already exist on this subject, the author has occupied himself in the following pages exclusively with the etymology, and significance of Names—of personal names, comprising Surnames, Sobriquets, Pseudonyms, Nicknames, Class Names, and Professional Designations; of names of places, including the Countries of the World, with the principal Seas, Islands, Gulfs, Straits, &c., the United States of North America, the Counties of England and Wales, and particularly the Districts, Streets, Squares, Churches, and Public Buildings of London; of the names of Religious Sects and Political Factions; of the names of Inns and Taverns; in addition to the names of an infinite number of objects with which everyone is familiar, but whose actual significance is comprehended only by a few.

As to the utility of such a work, a brief glance into these pages may convince the reader that the subject of Names is fraught with much popular interest. Take the names of London streets. How many among the thousands who follow their daily occupations within sight of the gilt cross of St. Paul’s, ever reflect that the name of each street they frequent and pass by the way, points to the origin of the street itself; and that, were they to cultivate a practical acquaintance with those names, their knowledge of English History and Sociology might be considerably enlarged, with a result that they would be brought to ask themselves at length how they could have been possessed of “souls so dead” as never to have entered upon such a profitable field of inquiry before? Whitefriars, Blackfriars, and Austin Friars, carry us back in imagination to the days of yore; the friars have long returned to the dust, but the localities they inhabited are still identified with their existence by the names they bear. Yet these are possibly the only thoroughfares in the City—with the exception of such as have derived their names from a neighbouring church, public building, or private mansion—concerning which the average Londoner can express himself with any degree of certainty: if he venture a guess at the rest, it is safe to assert that he will be open to correction. The like observation applies to public buildings.

If the question were asked, for example, why the well-known Ships’ Registry Offices over the Royal Exchange are universally referred to as “Lloyd’s,” ninety-nine out of every hundred City men would avail themselves of the very plausible suggestion that the system of Marine Insurance was first established, either there or elsewhere, by some person named Lloyd. True, a certain Edward Lloyd had a remote connection with the enterprise; but he was a coffee-house keeper, who probably knew no more about ships and their tonnage than “Jonathan,” another noted London coffee-house keeper, after whom the Stock Exchange was formerly designated, knew about “bulls” and “bears.” Again, it is not every one who could account, off hand, for such familiar names as Scotland Yard, Bedlam, Doctors’ Commons, the Charterhouse, the churches of St. Mary-Axe, St. Clement-Danes, St. Hallow’s-Barking, or St. Catherine Cree. A few barristers would, doubtless, be in a position to inform us wherefore our seminaries for the study of the law were originally styled “Inns of Court”; but the ordinary inquirer, left to his own resources, might find the problem somewhat difficult to solve. Surely they were not at one time inns? and if so, whence came the designation Inns of Court? Did the Court flunkeys patronize them, perhaps? Or, more likely, did the sovereign, attended by the Court, take a fancy to sleeping beneath the roof of each for once in a way, after the manner of Queen Elizabeth? And, speaking about inns, every Londoner is, of course, aware of the one-time existence of “La Belle Sauvage” on the north side of Ludgate Hill, albeit the origin of this sign has generally been ascribed to Pocahontas, of Virginia, who accompanied her husband, John Rolfe, back to England in the year 1616, and, as tradition has it, put up at this famous old coaching-house. Moreover, Messrs. Cassell and Co., whose premises occupy the site, and are approached from La Belle Sauvage Yard, have profited by the popular misconception to the extent of adopting the figure of a female partly clad in skins as their trade-mark. Then, again, who has not heard of “The Tabard”? and whence did that derive its sign? Among other celebrated inns still preserved to us, we have “Jack Straw’s Castle” on Hampstead Heath. But who was Jack Straw? and had he ever a castle thereabouts? As will be shown in these pages, the answer to these questions is associated with a very stirring moment in English History.

A great deal of the early history of England can be gleaned from the names of the counties into which this country is divided. The terms Shire and County are so far synonymous in that they indicate a portion of land distinguished by a particular name; yet, etymologically considered, they are widely different. Although every shire is a county, it is not every county to whose individual name the word “shire” may be added. The latter is essentially Anglo-Saxon, denoting a division of land possessed by an earl, and wherever it occurs it points conclusively to the Saxon occupation of England. Certainly, we do not speak of Essex-shire, Middle-sex-shire, or Sussex-shire, because the Saxon territories referred to, as well as their relative positions, are fully indicated in the names themselves. Neither are we accustomed to allude to Surrey-shire, for the reason that the word Surrey expressed the Anglo-Saxon for the land south of the rey, or river, comprising, as it did, that large tract of land described as Wessex, or the land of the West Saxons, now divided into six southern shires. The fact is, Wessex was the great kingdom of the Saxons in this country, whereas Essex, Middlesex, and Sussex were but petty kingdoms. Consequently, in the kingdom of Wessex it was that earldoms were first created, and lands appertaining thereto were literally scired, or sheared off. On the other hand, it would be ridiculous in the extreme, quite apart from the unfamiliarity of such an expression, to speak of Kent-shire, because there is nothing in the name that invests it with a Saxon interest. The same remark is applicable to Cornwall. It is only from habit, too, or because the name lends itself to the euphony, that Devon is denominated a shire; for not only is this a Celtic name, but the Saxons scarcely penetrated into, and certainly never occupied any considerable portion of, the county. The England of the Saxons, therefore, is to be distinguished wherever the word “shire” appears as part of the name of a county.

If the foregoing paragraph be deemed interesting to the general inquirer, a careful digest of the chapter on “The Countries of the World” should prove most instructive. With a few exceptions only, the names of the different countries of the Old World afford us an indication of their original inhabitants, or the rude tribes that overran them. In regard to the New World, such names of countries as are not of native origin invariably point to the nationality of the navigators who discovered them or of the adventurers who explored and colonized them. The maritime enterprise of the Spanish and Portuguese is in nothing so evident as in the territories named in accordance with their respective languages in South and Central America, to say nothing of the islands discovered by them in the Atlantic and Pacific Oceans. And, as a set-off against the shameful treatment by the Spaniards of Christopher Columbus, it must not be forgotten that the whole of the North American territory now embraced in the United States was originally designated Columbia in his honour, which name has been preserved in the Western portion of the continent known as British Columbia. A few Spanish names still linger in North America, notably California, Labrador, Florida, Nevada, Oregon, and Colorado. But the Spaniards were rovers rather than settlers; wherefore they contented themselves with maintaining their national reputation as successful navigators by giving names to the countries they discovered, and establishing a lucrative trading monopoly in that portion of the Caribbean Sea which formerly bore the name of the Spanish Main.

On the contrary, the English and French have distinguished themselves always, and all the world over, as colonists; so that, saving those States of North America which have received the native names of the great lakes and rivers, we can discover exactly which were colonized by the one nation and which by the other. Moreover, the English and French have generally exercised the common trait of honouring the mother country by naming a new colony or a newly-discovered island after the reigning monarch or a distinguished countryman. A similar trait in the Dutch character presents itself in the repetition of the names of the native places of their navigators and colonists; while the Spaniards and Portuguese have displayed a tendency for naming an island discovered or a river explored by them in a manner commemorative of the day that witnessed the event. At the same time, it would not be wise to conjecture, merely from the name, that Columbus discovered the island of Trinidad on the Feast of the Holy Trinity, because he did nothing of the kind. Therefore, it behoves the curious inquirer to make himself acquainted with the circumstances under which our geographical names have arisen, so as to avoid falling into error. As well might he maintain, without the requisite knowledge, that the Canary Islands owed their designation to the birds that have so long been exported thence; for although such a conclusion were extremely plausible, he would still be at a loss to know how the canaries came by their name in the first place.

A like difficulty is liable to be encountered relative to the Sandwich Islands. A particularly smart boy might, indeed, be expected to inform us, as the outcome of a hastily-formed opinion, that the Sandwich Islands were so called because a shipwrecked crew who once found a refuge thereon continued to support themselves until such time as they were rescued by a passing vessel upon sandwiches. The bare idea may be laughed at; but it is no more preposterous than that the Canary Islands received their name from the birds that are found there in such plenty. The question at issue furnishes an example as to how a name may be perpetuated in different ways. Thus, Captain Cook named the Sandwich Islands in compliment to John Montague, fourth Earl of Sandwich and First Lord of the Admiralty, who took his title from Sandwich, or, as the etymology of this place implies, the “sand town,” one of the ancient Cinque Ports in Kent. An inveterate gamester was this Lord Sandwich; so much so that he would sit at the gaming-table for thirty hours and more at a stretch, never desisting from the game to partake of a meal, but from time to time ordering the waiter to bring him some slices of meat placed between two slices of thin bread, from which circumstance this convenient form of refreshment received the name of Sandwiches.

Mention of sandwiches reminds us that very few tradesmen possess the remotest idea of the significance of the names of the various commodities in which they deal. Ask a purveyor of ham and beef to explain the origin of the word Sandwich, and he will be quite unable to furnish an answer. Put a similar question to a Tobacconist, and it will be found that he has never interested himself to the extent of inquiring what the word Tobacco means, not to speak of the names of the different kinds of tobacco. A Haberdasher, again, would be sorely perplexed to account for his individual trade-name; so would a Milliner, so would a Grocer, so would a Tailor; and so would almost every one who passes for an intelligent citizen, yet whose reflections have never been directed toward those trifling concerns which, as one might be led to suppose, are most immediately interesting to him. And so we might go on multiplying examples until this Introduction reached an altogether inordinate length, with no other object than to arouse the reader’s interest in the pages that follow. But the necessity for a more extended Introduction does not arise. The scope of this work will be sufficiently indicated by the Analytical Table of Contents; but even there a very large number of names incidentally referred to in the text have not been included. The Index may be somewhat more to the purpose, inasmuch as every item set forth therein will be found not merely alluded to but discussed in the book; and to the book itself the reader is now referred.

L. W.

London.


CONTENTS.

THE COUNTRIES OF THE WORLD.
Asia, Africa, Europe, America; Palestine, Asia Minor; Persia, Arabia, India, Hindustan, Turkestan, Afghanistan, Beloochistan, Kurdestan; China, Siberia, Russia, Circassia, Crimea, Finland, Sweden, Norway; Britain, England, Scotland, Caledonia, Ireland, The Emerald Isle, Cambria, Wales; Saxony, Gaul, France, Normandy, Brittany; Germany, Holland, Belgium, Denmark, Jutland, Prussia, Bohemia, Hungary, Poland, Servia, Montenegro, Bosnia, Moldavia, Moravia, Bulgaria, Roumania, Turkey, Ottoman Empire, Greece; Austria, Italy, Switzerland, Spain, Portugal; Algiers, Morocco, Barbary, Sahara, Soudan, Egypt, Senegambia, Gold Coast, Guinea, Zanzibar, Zululand, Transvaal, Natal, Orange Free States, Cape Colony, Cape of Good Hope; Cape Horn, Patagonia, Chili, Argentine Republic, Brazil, Bolivia, Uraguay, Paraguay, Peru, Pernambuco, Ecuador, Columbia, Venezuela; Panama, Costa Rica, Honduras, Nicaragua, Mosquito Coast, Yutacan, Quatemala, Mexico, California, British Columbia; Canada, Manitoba, Ontario, Quebec, Labrador, Greenland, New Brunswick, Nova Scotia, Florida; Virginia, Maryland, Baltimore, Pennsylvania, Georgia, Carolina, Louisiana, Maine, New Orleans, New Hampshire, New Jersey, New York, Michigan, Indiana, Alabama, Nebraska, Ohio, Massachusetts, Wisconsin, Kansas, Tennessee, Kentucky, Mississippi, Missouri, Minnesota, Arkansas, Illinois, Oregon, Texas, Vermont, Colorado, Nevada, Connecticut, Iowa, Astoria, Delaware; Lake Superior, Lake Erie, Lake Huron, Lake Ontario, Niagara, Lake Michigan, Lake Winnipeg, Great Bear Lake, Great Salt Lake; The Arctic Ocean, Antarctic Ocean, Atlantic Ocean, Pacific Ocean, Caribbean Sea, Mediterranean Sea, Adriatic Sea, Baltic Sea; German Ocean, Indian Ocean, Irish Sea; White Sea, Black Sea, Red Sea, Green Sea, Yellow Sea, Dead Sea, Caspian Sea, Sea of Marmora; The Gulf Stream, The Horse Latitudes, The Spanish Main; Hudson’s Bay, James’ Bay, Barrow’s Strait, All Saints’ Bay, Gulf of St. Lawrence, Gulf of Carpentaria, Torres Strait, Botany Bay; St. George’s Channel, The Skagerrack, Zuyder Zee; Bay of Biscay; Strait of Gibraltar, The Bosphorus, The Dardanelles; Australia, New Holland, New Zealand, Tasmania, Van Dieman’s Land, Society Islands, Friendly Islands, Christmas Island, Sandwich Islands, Philippine Islands, Caroline Islands; Papua, Java, Sumatra, Borneo, Japan, Formosa, Ceylon, Mauritius, Isle of Bourbon, Madagascar; Tierra del Fuego, Island of Desolation, Hanover Island, Adelaide Island, Juan Fernandez, Ladrone Islands, Pitcairn’s Island, Easter Island, Vancouver Island, Queen Charlotte Island, Prince of Wales Island, Aleutian Islands; Barrow Island, Baring Island, Parry Island, Baffin Land, Banks Land, Newfoundland, Rhode Island, Long Island, Bermuda Islands, San Salvador, Jamaica, Cuba, Hayti, Barbadoes, Dominica, Porto Rico, Trinidad, Tobago Island, St. Kitt’s Island; Ascension Island, St. Helena, Tristan d’Acunha, Madeira, Majorca, Minorca, Balearic Islands, Corsica, Sardinia, Capri, Sicily, Malta, Candia, Cyprus, Rhodes; Belleisle, Jersey, Isle of Wight, Gothland, Heligoland, Anglesea, Isle of Man, Hebrides, Orkney Isles, Shetland Isles, Iceland, Spitzbergen, Nova Zembla 35
THE MONTHS AND DAYS OF THE WEEK.
January, February, March, April, May, June, July, August, September, October, November, December; Sunday, Monday, Tuesday, Wednesday, Thursday, Friday, Saturday 59
CREEDS, SECTS, AND DENOMINATIONS.
Theism, Deism, Atheism, Pantheism, Agnosticism, Secularism, Utilitarianism, Materialism, Rationalism; Monotheism, Mosaism, Judaism, Paganism, Polytheism; Zoroastrians, Brahmins, Buddhists, Mahommedans, Mussulmans, Islam; Christians, Pharisees, Nazarenes, Gnostics, Aquarians, Arians, Luciferians, Donatists, Macedonians, Apollinarians; Catholics; Greek Church, Roman Catholic Church, Church of England, Gallican Church, Lutheran Church; Protestants, Calvinists, Huguenots, Wycliffites, Gospellers, Lollards, Albigenses, Waldenses, Camisards, Hussites, Bedlamites, Moravians; Adamites, Libertines, Jansenists, Jesuists, Gabrielites, Labadists, Socinians, Arminians, New Christians, Old Catholics; Scotists, Thomists, Sabbatarians, Fifth Monarchy Men, Muggletonians; Seekers, Quakers, Shakers, Mormons, Peculiar People, Faith Healers, Irvingites, Humanitarians, Sacramentarians, Plymouth Brethren, Perfectionists, Hopkinsians; Scottish Covenanters, Presbyterians, Cameronians, Macmillanites, Morisonians, Free Church of Scotland; Puritans, Nonconformists, Conformists, Dissenters, Sectarians, Independents, Congregationalists, Unitarians, Trinitarians, Baptists, Anabaptists, Methodists, Wesleyan Methodists, Primitive Methodists; High Church, Low Church, Broad Church, Latitudinarism, Ritualists, Puseyites, Tractarians 61
TAVERN SIGNS.
The Green Man, The Green Man and Still, The Red Lion, The Bear and Ragged Staff, The Boar’s Head, The Black Bull, The Talbot, The Chequers; The White Rose, The Red Rose, The Star; The White Swan, The White Swan and Antelope, The White Hart, The Sun, The Three Suns, The White Lion, The Eagle, The Blue Boar, The Red Dragon, The Greyhound, The Rose, The Thistle, The Shamrock; The Crown, The Rose and Crown, The Crown and Sceptre, The Crown and Anchor; The Earl of March; The Hare and Hounds, The Tally Ho! The Fox in the Hole; The Angel, The Salutation, The Three Kings, The Cross Keys, The Mitre; The Turk’s Head, The Saracen’s Head, The Golden Cross, The Half Moon; The Swan, The Pheasant, The Peacock; The St. George, The George and Dragon, The Green Dragon, The George, The King’s Arms, The Queen’s Arms, The Freemasons’ Arms, The Coachmakers’ Arms, The Saddlers’ Arms, The Carpenters’ Arms; The Garter, The Star and Garter; The Leg and Star, The Cat and Fiddle, The Bag o’ Nails, The Goat and Compass, The Iron Devil, The Bull and Mouth, The Bull and Gate, The Lion and Key, The Catherine Wheel, The Plume and Feathers, The Bully Ruffian, The Blue Pig, The Pig and Whistle; The Coach and Horses, The Pack Horse; The Bear, The Dog and Duck, The Bowling Green; The Grapes, The Castle, The Globe, The Spread Eagle, The Yorkshire Stingo; The Bell, The Barley-mow, The Old Hat, The Ram and Teazle, The Bricklayers’ Arms, The Cricketers’ Arms, The Black Jack; The Royal Oak, The Boscobel, The Palmerston, The Marquis of Granby, The Portobello Arms, The Nelson, The Wellington, The Trafalgar, The Waterloo, The Ship, The King’s Head, The Queen’s Head, The Victoria, The Prince Albert, The Prince of Wales’ Feathers 77
ROYAL SURNAMES.
Alfred the Great, Edward the Martyr, Ethelred the Unready, Edmund Ironsides, Edgar Atheling, Harold Harefoot, Edward the Confessor; William the Conqueror, William Rufus, Henry Beauclerc, Richard Cœur de Lion, William the Lion, John Lackland, Edward Longshanks, Edward the Black Prince, John of Gaunt, Henry Bolingbroke; Bluff King Hal, Defender of the Faith, The White Queen, Bloody Mary, Good Queen Bess; The Lord Protector, The Merry Monarch, The Sailor King; Plantagenet, Tudor, Stuart; Charlemagne, The She-Wolf of France, Pedro the Cruel, Ivan the Terrible, Frederick Barbarossa, Ferdinand Bomba, Egalité Philippe 87
NATIONAL NICKNAMES.
Brother Jonathan, Uncle Sam, Yankee; John Bull, Mrs. Grundy, The British Matron; Tommy Atkins; Pat, Sandie, Taffy; John Chinaman, Pigtails, Pale Faces, Redskins; Nigger, Sambo, Mulatto 93
BIRDS.
Cuckoo, Pewit, Curlew, Chickadee, Whip-poor-will; Trumpeter, Nightingale, Night-jar, Mocking-bird, Humming-bird, Greenfinch, Goldfinch, Greenlet, Jay, Blue-bird, Blackbird, Starling, Flamingo, Oriole, Lyre-bird; Red-poll, Secretary-bird; Birds of Paradise, Love-birds; Kingfisher; Lapwing; Wagtail, Scissors-bird, Hangbird, Weaver-bird, Tailor-bird; Widow-bird, Martin, Muscovy Duck; Swift, Passenger-pigeon; Skylark, Chaffinch, Diver, Sandpiper, Chimney-swallow; Horn-bill, Boat-bill, Spoon-bill, Duck-bill, Cross-bill; Pouter-pigeon, Ring-dove, Wryneck, Woodcock, Woodpecker; Guinea-fowl, Brahma-fowl, Bantam, Barb, Turkey, Baltimore-bird, Canary, Petrel 96
RELIGIOUS ORDERS.
Monastery, Convent, Abbey, Priory; Monk, Nun, Friar; Dominicans or Black Friars, Franciscans or Grey Friars; Carmelites or White Friars, Augustines or Austin Friars, Trinitarians or Crutched Friars; Observant Friars, Conventional Friars; Capuchin Friars, Cordeliers; Benedictines, Carthusians, Cistercians, Cluniacs, Bernardines, Basilians, Trappists; Jesuists, Servites, Passionists, Redemptorists 100
PAPER AND PRINTING.
Paper, Parchment; Hand-paper, Pot-paper, Post-paper, Crown-paper, Foolscap; Nepaul-paper, India-paper, Cap-paper, Elephant, Cartridge-paper, Bristol-board; Folio, Quarto, Octavo, Duodecimo; Printer’s Devil; Hansard, Blue Book, Yellow Book; Book, Leaf, Volume, Library; Pamphlet, Brochure, Chart, Map, Atlas, Cartoon, Broadside, Poster, Stationery 104
POLITICAL NICKNAMES.
Whigs, Tories, Liberals, Conservatives, Radicals, Socialists, Levellers, Democrats; Royalists, Parliamentarians, Cavaliers, Roundheads; Orangemen, Jacobites, Peep-o’-day Boys, White Boys, Fenians, Irish Invincibles, Ribbonmen, Emergency Men; Separists, Nationalists, Parnellites, Boycotters; Sansculottes, Red Republicans, The Mountain, The Plain, Girondists; The Hats, The Caps, Nihilists, Carbonari, Black Cloaks, Lazzari, Guelphs, Ghibellines; Federals, Republicans, Democrats, Confederates, Corn-feds, Yanks or Yankees, Copperheads, Know-nothings, Tammany Ring, Mugwumps; Chartists, Jingoes, Protectionists 109
FLOWERS.
Forget-me-not, Mignonette, Carnation, Geranium, Crane’s-bill; Pansy, Camellia, Dahlia, Fuchsia, Victoria Regia, Adonis, Hyacinth, Aspasia, Orchid, Sweetbriar, Lilac, Lavender; Dog-rose, Damask-rose, Cabbage-rose, Christmas-rose, Primrose; Mayflower, Hawthorn, Gilly-flower, Tiger-flower, Daffodil, Hollyhock, Noon-tide, Noon-flower, Convolvulus, Daisy, Buttercup, Cowslip; Sunflower, Heliotrope, Goldylocks, Marigold, Chrysanthemum, Rhododendron; Passion-flower, Stock 117
THE BIBLE.
Bible, Scriptures; Septuagint, Latin Vulgate, Douay Bible, Rheims Bible; King James’s Bible, The Bishops’ Bible, Cranmer’s Bible, The Great Bible, Mazarin Bible, Pearl Bible, Geneva Bible, Breeches Bible, Vinegar Bible, Beer Bible, Treacle Bible, Whig Bible, Wicked Bible, Bug Bible; “He” Bible, “She” Bible; Virginia Bible; Pentateuch; Genesis, Exodus, Leviticus, Numbers, Deuteronomy; Apocrypha, Apocalypse 122
WINES.
Burgundy, Champagne, Pontac, Moselle, Johannisberg, Florence, Falernian, Montepulciano, Malaga, Sherry, Port, Cyprus, Malmsey, Madeira, Canary; Tokay, Claret, Tent Wine; Sillery, Pommery, Moet and Chandon; Hippocras, Badminton, Negus, Sack; Dry Wine, Crusted Port, Three-Men Wine 127
LITERARY SOBRIQUETS.
Gildas the Wise, Venerable Bede, Century White, Monk Lewis, Rainy-Day Smith; Silver-Tongued Sylvester, The Water Poet, The Ettrick Shepherd, The Bidëford Postman, The Mad Poet, The Quaker Poet, The Banker Poet, Anacreon Moore, Orion Home, The Farthing Poet; The Wizard of the North, The Addison of the North, The Minstrel of the Border, The Corn Law Rhymer 130
THE COUNTIES OF ENGLAND AND WALES.
Northumberland, Cumberland, Westmoreland, Durham, York; Lancashire, Cheshire, Leicestershire, Worcestershire, Gloucestershire; Lincoln, Norfolk, Suffolk, Essex, Sussex, Middlesex; Surrey, Kent, Hampshire, Dorset, Somerset, Devon, Cornwall, Wiltshire, Berkshire, Buckingham; Oxford, Hertford, Hereford, Stafford, Bedford, Cambridge, Huntingdon, Northampton, Rutland, Warwick, Nottingham, Derby, Shropshire, Monmouth; Anglesea, Glamorgan, Brecknock, Radnor, Montgomery, Denbigh, Flint, Carnarvon, Carmarthen, Merioneth, Cardigan, Pembroke 133
CARRIAGES.
Phaeton, Victoria, Clarence, Brougham, Stanhope, Sociable, Landau, Tilbury; Dog-Cart, Buggy, Gig, Sulky, Noddy, Jaunting Car, Break; Stage-Coach, Omnibus; Hackney-Coach, Coach, Cab, Cabriolet, Hansom Cab; Hearse, Pantechnicon 138
DANCES.
Terpsichorean Art; Morris Dance, Saraband, Gavotte, Quadrille, Lancers, Polka, Schottische, Mazourka, Redowa, Waltz; Country Dance, Roger de Coverley, Minuet, Tarantella; Cinderella Dance, Ball, Ballet, Coryphée, Phyrric Dance; Hornpipe, Reel, Jig, Breakdown 142
PIGMENTS AND DYES.
Umber, Sienna, Gamboge, Krems White, Prussian Blue, Saunders Blue, Chinese Yellow, Frankfort Black, Hamburg Lake; Ultramarine; Mazarine, Pompadour, Cardinal, Carnation, Carmine, Pink, Purple, Scarlet, Crimson; Cassius, Magenta, Vandyke Brown, Sepia, Sap Green, Emerald Green, Lamp Black, Ivory Black, Isabel 146
LONDON DISTRICTS AND SUBURBS.
London, Thames; Westminster, Belgravia, Pimlico, Knightsbridge, Mayfair, Soho, Bloomsbury, Smithfield, Clerkenwell, Spa Fields, Bunhill Fields, Moorfields, Finsbury; Shoreditch, Whitechapel, Goodman’s Fields, Shadwell, Ratcliffe Highway, Stepney, Spitalfields, Bethnal Green, Hoxton, De Beauvoir Town, Copenhagen Fields, Haggerstone, Hackney, Dalston, Stoke Newington, Southgate, Kingsland, Abney Park, Green Lanes, Edmonton, Ball’s Pond, Mildmay Park, Muswell Hill, Wood Green, Hornsey, Canonbury, Highbury, Holloway, Barnsbury, Islington; King’s Cross, St. Pancras, Agar Town, Somers Town, Camden Town, Kentish Town, Primrose Hill, Highgate, Hampstead, Frognal, Bishop’s Wood, Hendon; Gospel Oak, Chalk Farm, St. John’s Wood, Kilburn, Maida Vale, Marylebone, Tyburn; Bayswater, Paddington, Westbourne Park, Notting Hill, Shepherd’s Bush; Acton, Gunnersbury, Kew, Brentford, Isleworth, Staines, Kingston, Shepperton, Twickenham, Richmond, Sheen; Chiswick, Hammersmith, Kensington, Brompton, Chelsea, Battersea, Walham Green, Parsons Green, Fulham, Putney, Wimbledon; Wandsworth, Lambeth, Vauxhall; Southwark, Bermondsey, Horsleydown, Walworth, The Borough; Rotherhithe, Deptford, Greenwich, Woolwich, Isle of Dogs, New Cross; Lewisham, Blackheath, Eltham; Catford, Beckenham, Sydenham, Forest Hill, Norwood, Dulwich, Honor Oak, Nunhead, Peckham, Brixton, Camberwell, Stockwell, Kennington, Newington, St. George’s Fields 149
BATTLES.
The Tearless Victory, The Thundering Legion, The Hallelujah Victory; The Battle of the Standard, The Battle of the Herrings; The Battle of Spurs; The Battle of the Spurs of Gold; The Battle of the Giants, The Battle of All the Nations 163
NOTABLE DAYS AND FESTIVALS.
New Year’s Day; Whitsuntide, Lammastide, Martinmas, Candlemas Day; Lady Day, Midsummer, Michaelmas, Christmas Day; Innocents’ Day, Epiphany, Twelfth Night, Distaff’s Day, Rock Day, Plough Monday, Handsel Monday, Boxing Day; Lent, Shrove Tuesday, Ash Wednesday, Passion Sunday, Passion Week, Palm Sunday, Maunday-Thursday, Good Friday, Long Friday, Holy Saturday; Easter, Passover, Low Sunday, Sexagesima Sunday, Quinquagesima Sunday, Quadragesima Sunday; Pentecost, Trinity Sunday, Corpus Christi, Rogation Sunday, Rogation Days, Ember Days; Ascension Day, The Assumption, Holy Cross Day, All Saints’ Day, All Souls’ Day, Allhallowes’ Day; Allhallowe’en, Cracknut Night; St. Valentine’s Day, St. Swithin’s Day, St. David’s Day, Comb’s Mass; Primrose Day, Royal Oak Day, Guy Fawkes’ Day; Arbor Day; Forefathers’ Day, Independence Day, Evacuation Day; Mothering Sunday; Grouse Day, Partridge Day, Sprat Day; Red Letter Day, Holiday 165
TEXTILES, EMBROIDERIES, AND LACE.
Damask, Muslin, Nankeen, Calico, Cashmere, Dimity, Valance, Holland, Cambric, Shalloon, Tarlatan, Worsted, Cobourg, Angola, Frieze; Cotton, Silk, Brocade, Damassin, Sarsanet, Mohair, Moire-Antique, Chintz, Taffety, Linen, Lawn, Pompadour; Swansdown, Moleskin, Merino, Alpaca; Kersey, Gingham, Blankets; Plush, Velvet, Velveteen, Fustian, Grogram, Corduroy; Pina-cloth, Grass-cloth, T-cloth, Broadcloth, Twill, Tweed, Plaid, Check; Embroidery, Tapestry, Bayeaux Tapestry, Gobelin Tapestry, Arras; Lace, Valenciennes, Colbertine, Point-lace, Pillow-lace; Tulle 176
LITERARY PSEUDONYMS.
Voltaire, Barry Cornwall, Yendys, Nimrod, Zadkiel; Knickerbocker, Elia, Boz, Ouida, George Sand; Artemus Ward, Mark Twain; F. M. Allen 181
COUNTERFEIT PRESENTMENTS.
Portrait, Photograph, Miniature, Profile, Silhouette; Talbotype, Daguerreotype, Ferriertype; Carte-de-Visite, Vignette, Cabinet, Kit-Kat, Kit-Kat Canvas 184
LONDON INNS AND GARDENS.
The Tabard Inn, “La Belle Sauvage,” The Swan with Two Necks, The Elephant and Castle, The Horse Shoe, The Blue Posts, The Black Posts, The Three Chairmen, The Running Footman; The Mother Red Cap, The Mother Shipton, The Adelaide, The York and Anlaby, Jack Straw’s Castle, The Spaniards, The Whittington Stone, The Thirteen Cantons, The North Pole, The South Australian, The World’s End, The Fulham Bridge, The Devil, The Three Nuns, The White Conduit Tavern, The Belvedere, The Clown Tavern, Hummuns’s; Sadler’s Wells, Highbury Barn, Vauxhall Gardens, Ranelagh Gardens, Cremorne Gardens 187
SOBRIQUETS AND NICKNAMES.
The Mother of Believers, Fair Helen, Fair Rosamond, The Fair Maid of Kent, The Holy Maid of Kent; Black Agnes, Fair Maiden Lilliard, The Maid of Orleans, The Maid of Saragossa; The Lady Freemason, The Swedish Nightingale, The Jersey Lily; The Weeping Philosopher, The Laughing Philosopher, The Subtle Doctor, The Angelic Doctor, St. Paul of the Cross; Robin Hood, Little John, Will Scarlet, Friar Tuck; Sixteen-string Jack, Spring-heel Jack; Gentleman Jack, Gentleman Smith, Admirable Crichton, Fighting Fitzgerald, Romeo Coates, Beau Fielding, Beau Brummell, Beau Nash, The King of Bath; The Factory King, The Railway King, The Paper King, The Nitrate King; The Man of Ross, The People’s Friend, The Musical Small-Coal Man, Tom Folio; The Infant Roscius; Single-Speech Hamilton, Starvation Dundas, Orange Peel, The Heaven-Sent Minister, Finality John; Dizzy, The Grand Old Man, Bookstall Smith; The Dancing Chancellor, Praise-God Barebones; Sinner-Saved Huntingdon, Orator Henley; Memory Woodfall, Memory-Corner Thompson; Dirty Dick; Capability Brown, George Ranger, The Jubilee Plunger; Long Peter, Magdalen Smith, Claude Lorraine, Tintoretto, Il Furioso; The Scottish Hogarth, The Liverpool Landseer; The Liberator; The Pathfinder; Yankee Jonathan 194
THE INNS OF COURT.
Lincoln’s Inn, Gray’s Inn, Furnival’s Inn, Clifford’s Inn; Serjeants’ Inn; Barnard’s Inn, Staple Inn, Clement’s Inn, Dane’s Inn, New Inn, Thavie’s Inn; Benchers 208
RACES.
Goodwood, Ascot, Epsom, Derby, Oaks, Doncaster St. Leger; Hurdle Race, Steeplechase; Sweepstake 210
LONDON CHURCHES AND BUILDINGS.
Westminster Abbey, The Temple, Savoy Chapel, St. Clement-Danes, St. Mary-le-Bow, St. Mary-Axe, St. Catherine Cree, St. Catherine Coleman, St. Margaret Pattens, St. Sepulchre, St. Bride’s, St. Andrew Undershaft, Allhallowes, Barking; St. Olave’s, The White Tower, Bloody Tower, Beauchamp Tower, Traitors’ Gate; Newgate, St. John’s Gate, Temple Bar, London Bridge, Billingsgate, The Mint, The Trinity House; Crosby Hall, Memorial Hall, The Guildhall, Doctors’ Commons, St. Martin’s-le-Grand; The Charterhouse, Christ’s Hospital, Bartholomew’s Hospital, Guy’s Hospital, Bedlam, The Magdalen Hospital; St. James’s Palace, Buckingham Palace, Marlborough House, Somerset House, Whitehall, The Horse Guards, Dover House, York House; Devonshire House, Apsley House, Chandos House, The Albany, Burlington House, Soane Museum; Painted Hall, Vanburgh Castle, Rye House; Bruce Castle, Lincoln House, Sandford House, Cromwell House, Ireton House, Lauderdale House, The Clock House, Rosslyn House, Erskine House; Strawberry Hill; Orleans House, Essex House, Bristol House, Craven Cottage, Munster House, Peterborough House, Holland House; The Albert Hall, Crystal Palace, Alexandra Palace, Olympia, Egyptian Hall, St. George’s Hall, St. James’s Hall, Willis’s Rooms, Almack’s Assembly Rooms, Exeter Hall, Madame Tussaud’s; Scotland Yard, Lord’s Cricket Ground, Tattersall’s; Lloyd’s Rooms; Capel Court, The Royal Exchange, The Stock Exchange, Bankers’ Clearing House, Railway Clearing House 212
CLASS NAMES AND NICKNAMES.
Spinster, Widow, Grass Widow, Chaperon, Duenna, Dowager; Blue Stocking, Abigail, Grisette, Colleen; Milliner, Haberdasher, Grocer, Greengrocer, Boniface, Ostler; Cordwainer, Tailor, Tallyman, Uncle, Barber, Barber-Surgeon; Arcadian, Mentor, Usher, Bachelor; Beefeaters, Police, Bobbies, Peelers, Bow Street Runners; Mohawks, Scourers; Garrotters, Sandbaggers; Fop, Dandy, Macaroni, Masher; Gipsies, Bohemians; Teetotalers, Rechabites, Good Templars; Jack Tar, Longshoreman, Navvy, Jehu, Jerrybuilder, Journeyman; Dun, Man of Straw, Costermonger, Pedlar, Hawker, Cheap Jack, Quack, Merry Andrew, Juggler, Stump Orator; Blackguard, Scullion, Scullery Maid; Blackleg; Plunger, Bookmaker, Welsher; Burglar, Jack Ketch; Cockney; Greenhorn, Nincompoop, Lunatic, Dutchman, Humbug 228
MALT LIQUORS.
Ale, Beer, Small Beer; Twopenny, Half-and-Half, Entire, Porter, Stout, Yorkshire Stingo, X Ale; Mum, Lager-bier, Bock-bier 241
DIAMONDS AND PRECIOUS STONES.
Diamond; The Kohinoor, Mattan, Orloff, Shah, Star of the South, Sauci, Regent, Pitt, Pigott, Dudley, Twin Diamonds; Turquoise, Topaz, Agate, Amethyst, Opal, Emerald, Garnet, Ruby, Pearl; Carat 244
NAVAL AND MILITARY SOBRIQUETS.
Manlius-Torquatus, Charles Martel, Robert the Devil, The Hammer and Scourge of England; Black Douglas, Bell the Cat, The King Maker, Hotspur, The Mad Cavalier; Ironsides, The Almighty Nose; The Bloody Butcher, Corporal John, The Little Corporal; The Iron Duke, Marshal Forward, The Iron Chancellor, Helmuth the Taciturn; Stonewall Jackson, Old Hickory; Foul-Weather Jack, Old Grog, The Silver Captain 246
MONEY.
Money, Sterling Money; Guinea, Sovereign, Crown, Florin, Shilling, Penny; Halfpenny, Farthing; Ducat, Noble, Rose-Noble, George-Noble; Angel, Thistle-Crown, Jacobus, Carollus, Dolphin, Louis d’or, Napoleon; Franc, Dollar, Joachims-Thaler, Thaler, Kreuzer; Wood’s Halfpence, Greenbacks, Bluebacks, Abraham Newlands; Bullion, Stock, Tally, Consols, Sinking Fund, Tontine; Budget 252
SPIRITS.
Rum, Whisky, Brandy, Gin; Hollands, Cognac, Nantes, Old Tom; Punch, Toddy, Grog; Mountain Dew, Glenlivet, LL Whisky 257
LONDON STREETS AND SQUARES.
Fleet Street, Salisbury Court, Whitefriars Street, Blackfriars Road, Ludgate Hill, Old Bailey, Friar Street, Sermon Lane, Paul’s Chain, Old Change, Paternoster Row, Ave Maria Lane, Creed Lane, Amen Corner, Warwick Lane, Ivy Lane; Cheapside, Bread Street, Friday Street, Milk Street; Gutter Lane, Foster Lane, Ironmonger Lane, Wood Street, Lawrence Lane, Gresham Street, Lad Lane, Aldermanbury, King Street, Basinghall Street, Coleman Street, Old Jewry, Poultry, Bucklersbury, King William Street, Queen Victoria Street; Cannon Street, Budge Row, Watling Street, Walbrook, College Hill, Queenhithe, Dowgate, Steelyard; Gracechurch Street, Fenchurch Street, Eastcheap, Mincing Lane, Mark Lane, Rood Lane, Seething Lane, Billiter Street, Minories, Crutched Friars, Aldgate; Leadenhall Street, St. Mary-Axe, Throgmorton Street, Nicholas Lane, Lolhbury, Threadneedle Street, Cornhill, Birchin Lane, Change Alley; Lombard Street; Austin Friars, Old Broad Street, Bishopsgate Street, St. Helen’s, Devonshire Square, Artillery Lane, Houndsditch, Bevis Marks, Petticoat Lane, Wormwood Street, Camomile Street, London Wall, Barbican, Beech Lane, Great Winchester Street, Moorgate Street, Cripplegate, Whitecross Street, Redcross Street, Playhouse Yard, Jewin Street, Aldersgate Street, Bridgewater Square, Bartholomew Close, Cloth Fair, Little Britain, Duke Street, Newgate Street, Bath Street, King Edward Street, Giltspur Street, Knightrider Street, Pie Corner, Farringdon Road, Saffron Hill, Ely Place, Hatton Garden, Holborn, Holborn Bars, Leather Lane, Fetter Lane, Brooke Street, Greville Street, Gray’s Inn Road, Furnival Street, Dyer’s Buildings, Cursitor Street, Chancery Lane; Southampton Buildings, Verulam Buildings; Lincoln’s Inn Fields, Great Queen Street, Long Acre; Drury Lane, Denzil Street, Holles Street, Clare Market, White Hart Street, Catherine Street, Portugal Street, Serle Street, Wych Street, Holywell Street, Strand; Essex Street, Milford Lane, Arundel Street, Norfolk Street, Surrey Street, Howard Street, Savoy Street, Wellington Street, Bow Street, Covent Garden, York Street, King Street, Henrietta Street, Tavistock Street, Bedford Street, Southampton Street, Bedfordbury, Maiden Lane, Chandos Street, Exeter Street, Burleigh Street, Cecil Street, Salisbury Street, Adelphi Terrace, Adam Street, John Street, Robert Street, James Street; George Street, Duke Street, Buckingham Street, Villiers Street; Charing Cross, Craven Street, Northumberland Avenue; Trafalgar Square, St. Martin’s Lane, King William Street, Seven Dials, Cranbourne Street, Leicester Square, Coventry Street, Windmill Street, Haymarket, Jermyn Street, Arundel Street, Orange Street, Panton Street, Suffolk Street; Spring Gardens, Pall Mall, King Street, St. James’s Square, Bury Street; Green Park, Hyde Park, Rotten Row, Albert Gate, Marble Arch, Rutland Gate, Cumberland Gate, Grosvenor Gate, Stanhope Gate, Park Lane, Portugal Street, Chapel Street, Chesterfield Street, Grosvenor Square, Hamilton Place; Piccadilly; Curzon Street, Charles Street, Queen Street, Shepherd’s Market, Hay Hill, Farm Street, Berkeley Square, Stratton Street, Bruton Street, Mount Street, Clarges Street, Half Moon Street, Arlington Street, Bennett Street, Dover Street, Albemarle Street, Bond Street, Clifford Street, Burlington Street, Cork Street, Savile Row, Vigo Street, Sackville Street, Ayr Street, Swallow Street, Vine Street; Regent Street; Conduit Street, Maddox Street, Brook Street, Mill Street, George Street, Hanover Square, Davies Street; Argyll Street, Great Marlborough Street, Blenheim Street, Wardour Street, Nassau Street, Golden Square, Shaftesbury Avenue; Old Compton Street, New Compton Street, Dean Street, Gerrard Street, Macclesfield Street, Greek Street, Carlisle Street; Hanway Street, Rathbone Place, Newman Street, Goodge Street, Castle Street, Wells Street, Berners Street, Foley Street, Charlotte Street, Great Titchfield Street, Grafton Street, Fitzroy Square, Euston Square, Southampton Street, Tottenham Court Road; Oxford Street, Harley Street, Wigmore Street, Cavendish Square, Holles Street, Henrietta Street, Bentinck Street, Margaret Street, Duchess Street, Portland Place, Welbeck Street, Wimpole Street, Stratford Place, Langham Place, Mansfield Street, Vere Street, Manchester Square, Spanish Place, Chandos Street, Hinde Street, Audley Street, Old Quebec Street, Seymour Street, Montague Square, Berkeley Square, Portman Square, Bryanstone Square, Blandford Square, Dorset Square, Baker Street, Harewood Square, Lisson Grove, Ossulton Square; Regent’s Park, Albany Street, Osnaburg Street, Munster Square, Park Street, Brecknock Road, Great College Street, Oakley Square, Ampthill Square, Harrington Square, Mornington Crescent, Granby Street, Skinner Street; Pancras Road, Battle Bridge Road, York Road, Caledonian Road, Liverpool Street, Sidmouth Street, Burton Crescent, Judd Street, Great Coram Street, Lamb’s Conduit Street, Harpur Street, Bedford Row, Southampton Row, Russell Square, Tavistock Square, Gordon Square, Torrington Square, Montague Street, Brunswick Square, Mecklenburgh Square; Thurlow Place, Great Ormond Street, Bloomsbury Square; Queen’s Square, Red Lion Square, Kingsgate Street, Theobald’s Road; Coldbath Square, Ray Street, Rosoman Street, Berkeley Street, Hockley-in-the-Hole; Myddleton Square, Pentonville Road; St. John Street Road, City Road, Shepherdess Walk, Curtain Road, Holywell Lane; Nichols Square, Sutton Place, Queen Elizabeth’s Walk, Fleetwood Road; Seven Sisters Road, Archway Road, Flask Walk; Judges’ Walk; Fleet Road, Dale Road, Barrow Hill Place, Abbey Road; Desborough Place, Church Street, Nottingham Place, Paddington Street; Craven Hill Gardens; Southwick Crescent, Orme Square, Ladbroke Grove, Norland Square, Kensington Gore, Ennismore Place, Cromwell Road, Gloucester Road; Campden Hill, Warwick Road, Holland Road, Earl’s Court Road, Addison Road; Cromwell Place, King’s Road, Cheyne Walk, Justice Walk, Marlborough Road, Keppel Street, Cadogan Square, Sloane Street, Hans Place, Danvers Street; Grosvenor Place, Eccleston Square, Belgrave Square, Ebury Square, Chester Square, Eaton Square, Lupus Street, St. George’s Square, Lowndes Square, Chesham Street; Vauxhall Bridge Road, Victoria Street; Birdcage Walk, Storey’s Gate, Queen Anne’s Gate, Delahay Street, Rochester Row, Bridge Street, Cannon Street, King Street, Princes Street, Parker Street, Great George Street, Abingdon Street, Holywell Street, Barton Street, Cowley Street, Marsham Street, Earl Street, Romney Street, Pye Street, Great Peter Street, Vine Street, Orchard Street, Tothill Street, Horseferry Road; Newington Butts, Great Suffolk Street, Mint Street, Old Kent Road, Grange Road, Spa Road, Russell Street, Tooley Street, Jamaica Road, Cherry Gardens Pier, Evelyn Street 259

THE COUNTRIES OF THE WORLD.

The oldest of the four great divisions of the world received its modern designation Asia from the Sanskrit Ushas, signifying “land of the dawn.” Africa traces its origin to the Phœnician afer, a black man, and the Sanskrit ac, the earth, a country. Europe owes its name to the Greek eurus, broad, and op, to see, or ops, the face, in allusion to “the broad face of the earth.” America honours the memory of Amerigo Vespucci, the Florentine navigator, who landed on the New Continent south of the Equator, the year after Columbus discovered the northern mainland in 1498. The name of America first appeared in a work published by Waldsemüller at St. Die, in Lorraine, in the year 1507. It is worthy of note that when Columbus landed in America he imagined he had set foot on part of that vast territory east of the Ganges vaguely known as India; therefore he gave the name of Indians to the aborigines. This also accounts for the islands in the Caribbean Sea being styled the West Indies.

The cradle of the human race bears the name of Palestine, or in Hebrew Palestina, meaning “the land of strangers,” agreeably to the native word palash, to wander. Palestine is usually denominated the Holy Land, because it was the scene of the birth, life, and death of the Redeemer. Asia Minor is, of course, Lesser Asia.

For the title of Persia we are indebted to the Greeks, who gave the name of Persis to the region (of which the capital was Persipolis) originally overrun by a wild branch of the Ayrian race called the Parsa, meaning, in the native tongue, “the Tigers” [see Parsees]. The suffix ia, wherever it occurs in a geographical sense, expresses the Celtic for land or territory. Hence, Persia signifies the territory of the Parsa or Parsees; Arabia, the country of the Arabs, “men of the desert”; Abyssinia, that of the Abassins, or “mixed races”; Kaffraria, that of the Kaffirs, or “unbelievers”; and Ethiopia, the “land of the blacks,” according to the two Greek words aithein, to burn, and ops, the face. India denotes the country traversed by the Indus, or rather the Hindu, which name is a Persicized form of the Sanskrit Sindhu, “a great river,” rendered Hindus in the Greek. Synonymous with the Celtic suffix just discussed is the Persian stan: consequently Hindustan signifies the territory traversed by the river Hindu, and peopled by the Hindoos; Turkestan, the country of the Turks; Afghanistan, that of the Afghans; Beloochistan, that of the Belooches; and Kurdestan, properly Koordistan, that of the Koords. The term China is a western corruption of Tsina, so called in honour of Tsin, the founder of the great dynasty which commenced in the third century B.C., when a knowledge of this country was first conveyed to the Western nations. It was this Tsin who built the Great Wall of China (or Tsin) to keep out the Barbarians. The Chinese Empire bears the description of the Celestial Empire because its early rulers were all celestial deities. Siberia is a term indicative of Siber, the residence of Kutsheen Khan, the celebrated Tartar prince, recognized as the ancient capital of the Tartars, the ruins of which may still be seen. Here again the Celtic suffix ia has reference to the surrounding territory.

Russia constituted the country of the Russ, a tribe who overran it at a very early period. The Russian Empire was founded by Ruric, or Rourik, a Scandinavian chief whose death took place in the year A.D., 879. Circassia denotes the country of the Tcherkes, a Tartar tribe who settled in the neighb