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The B?bur-n?ma in English
(Memoirs of B?bur)
Translated from the original Turki Text
Z?ahiru’d-d?n Mu?ammad B?bur P?dsh?h Gh?z?
ANNETTE SUSANNAH BEVERIDGE
First Printed 1922
is dedicate to
TABLE OF CONTENTS
Preface: Introductory.—Cap. I. Babur’s exemplars in the Arts of peace, p. xxvii.—Cap. II. Problems of the mutilated Babur-nama, p. xxxi.—Cap. III. The Turki MSS. and work connecting with them, p. xxxviii.—Cap. IV. The Leyden and Erskine “Memoirs of Baber”, p. lvii.—Postscript of Thanks, p. lx.
899 AH.—Oct. 12th 1493 to Oct. 2nd 1494 AD.—B?bur’s age at the date of his accession—Description of Fargh?na (pp. 1 to 12)—Death and biography of ‘Umar Shaikh (13 to 19 and 24 to 28)—Biography of Y?nas Chaghat?? (18 to 24)—B?bur’s uncles A?mad M?r?n-sh?h? and Ma?m?d Chaghat?? (The Kh?n) invade Fargh?na—Death and biography of A?mad—Misdoings of his successor, his brother Ma?m?d
900 AH.—Oct. 2nd 1494 to Sep. 21st 1495 AD.—Invasion of Fargh?na continued—B?bur’s adoption of orthodox observance—Death and biography of Ma?m?d M?r?n-sh?h?—Samarkand affairs—revolt of Ibr?h?m S?r? defeated—B?bur visits The Kh?n in T?shk?nt—tribute collected from the J?grak tribe—expedition into A?r?t?p?
901 AH.—Sep. 21st 1495 to Sep. 9th 1496 AD.—?usain B??-qar?’s campaign against Khusrau Sh?h—B?bur receives A?zbeg sult??ns—Revolt of the Tarkh?ns in Samarkand—B?bur’s first move for Samarkand
902 AH.—Sep. 9th 1496 to Aug. 30th 1497 AD.—B?bur’s second move for Samarkand—Dissensions of ?usain B??-qar? and his sons—Dissensions between Khusrau Sh?h and Mas‘?d M?r?n-sh?h?
903 AH.—Aug. 30th 1497 to Aug. 19th 1498 AD.—B?bur’s second attempt on Samarkand is successful—Description of Samarkand (pp. 74 to 86)—his action there—Mugh?ls demand and besiege Andij?n for B?bur’s half-brother Jah?ng?r—his mother and friends entreat his help—he leaves Samarkand in his cousin ‘Al?’s hands—has a relapse of illness on the road and is believed dying—on the news Andij?n is surrendered by a Mugh?l to the Mugh?l faction—Having lost Samarkand and Andij?n, B?bur is hospitably entertained by the Khujand?s—he is forced to dismiss Khal?fa—The Kh?n (his uncle) moves to help him but is [Pg viii]persuaded to retire—many followers go to Andij?n where were their families—he is left with 200-300 men—his mother and grandmother and the families of his men sent to him in Khujand—he is distressed to tears—The Kh?n gives help against Samarkand but his troops turn back on news of Shaib?n?—B?bur returns to Khujand—speaks of his ambition to rule—goes in person to ask The Kh?n’s help to regain Andij?n—his force being insufficient, he goes back to Khujand—Affairs of Khusrau Sh?h and the T?m?rid M?rz?s—Affairs of ?usain B??-qar? and his sons—Khusrau Sh?h blinds B?bur’s cousin Mas‘?d—B?bur curses the criminal
904 AH.—Aug. 19th 1498 to Aug. 8th 1499 AD.—B?bur borrows Pash?ghar for the winter and leaves Khujand—rides 70-80 miles with fever—a winter’s tug-of-war with Samarkand—his force insufficient, he goes back to Khujand—unwilling to burthen it longer, goes into the summer-pastures of A?r?t?p?—invited to Margh?n?n by his mother’s uncle ‘Al?-dost—a joyful rush over some 145 miles—near Margh?n?n prudent anxieties arise and are stilled—he is admitted to Margh?n?n on terms—is attacked vainly by the Mugh?l faction—accretions to his force—helped by The Kh?n—the Mugh?ls defeated near Akhs?—Andij?n recovered—Mugh?ls renew revolt—B?bur’s troops beaten by Mugh?ls—Ta?bal attempts Andij?n
905 AH.—Aug. 8th 1499 to July 28th 1500 AD.—B?bur’s campaign against Ah?ad Ta?bal and the Mugh?l faction—he takes M?z?—Khusrau Sh?h murders B??-sunghar M?r?nsh?h?—Biography of the M?rz?—B?bur wins his first ranged battle, from Ta?bal supporting Jah?ng?r, at Kh?b?n—winter-quarters—minor successes—the winter-camp broken up by Qa?bar-i-‘al?’s taking leave—B?bur returns to Andij?n—The Kh?n persuaded by Ta?bal’s kinsmen in his service to support Jah?ng?r—his troops retire before B?bur—B?bur and Ta?bal again opposed—Qa?bar-i-‘al? again gives trouble—minor action and an accommodation made without B?bur’s wish—terms of the accommodation—The self-aggrandizement of ‘Al?-dost Mugh?l—B?bur’s first marriage—a personal episode—Samarkand affairs—‘Al? quarrels with the Tarkh?ns—The Kh?n sends troops against Samarkand—M?rz? Kh?n invited there by a Tarkh?n—‘Al? defeats The Kh?n’s Mugh?ls—B?bur invited to Samarkand—prepares to start and gives Jah?ng?r rendezvous for the [Pg ix]attempt—Ta?bal’s brother takes A?sh—B?bur leaves this lesser matter aside and marches for Samarkand—Qa?bar-i-‘al? punishes himself—Shaib?n? reported to be moving on Bukh?r?—Samarkand begs wait on B?bur—the end of ‘Al?-dost—B?bur has news of Shaib?n?’s approach to Samarkand and goes to Kesh—hears there that ‘Al?’s A?zbeg mother had given Samarkand to Shaib?n? on condition of his marriage with herself
906 AH.—July 28th 1500 to July 17th 1501 AD.—Shaib?n? murders ‘Al?—a son and two grandsons of A?r?r?’s murdered—B?bur leaves Kesh with a number of the Samarkand begs—is landless and isolated—takes a perilous mountain journey back into A?r?t?p?—comments on the stinginess shewn to himself by Khusrau Sh?h and another—consultation and resolve to attempt Samarkand—B?bur’s dream-vision of success—he takes the town by a surprise attack—compares this capture with ?usain B??-qar?’s of Her?—his affairs in good position—birth of his first child—his summons for help to keep the A?zbeg down—literary matters—his force of 240 grows to allow him to face Shaib?n? at Sar-i-pul—the battle and his defeat—Mugh?ls help his losses—he is besieged in Samarkand—a long blockade—great privation—no help from any quarter—Futile proceedings of Ta?bal and The Kh?n
907 AH.—July 17th 1501 to July 7th 1502 AD.—B?bur surrenders Samarkand—his sister Kh?n-z?da is married by Shaib?n?—incidents of his escape to D?zak—his 4 or 5 escapes from peril to safety and ease—goes to Dikh-kat in A?r?t?p?—incidents of his stay there—his wanderings bare-head, bare-foot—sends gifts to Jah?ng?r, and to Ta?bal a sword which later wounds himself—arrival from Samarkand of the families and a few hungry followers—Shaib?n? Kh?n raids in The Kh?n’s country—B?bur rides after him fruitlessly—Death of Nuy?n K?k?ld?sh—B?bur’s grief for his friend—he retires to the Zar-afsh?n valley before Shaib?n?—reflects on the futility of his wanderings and goes to The Kh?n in T?shk?nt—Mugh?l conspiracy against Ta?bal Mugh?l—B?bur submits verses to The Kh?n and comments on his uncle’s scant study of poetic idiom—The Kh?n rides out against Ta?bal—his standards acclaimed and his army numbered—of the Ch?ng?z-t?r?—quarrel of Ch?r?s and Begch?k chiefs for the post of danger—Hunting—Khujand-river reached
908 AH.—July 7th 1502 to June 26th 1503 AD.—B?bur comments on The Kh?n’s unprofitable move—his poverty and despair in T?shk?nt—his resolve to go to Khit?? and ruse for getting away—his thought for his mother—his plan not accepted by The Kh?n and Sh?h Beg?m—The Younger Kh?n (A?mad) arrives from K?shghar—is met by B?bur—a half-night’s family talk—gifts to B?bur—the meeting of the two Kh?ns—A?mad’s characteristics and his opinion of various weapons—The Kh?ns march into Fargh?na against Jah?ng?r’s supporter Ta?bal—they number their force—B?bur detached against A?sh, takes it and has great accretions of following—An attempt to take Andij?n frustrated by mistake in a pass-word—Author’s Note on pass-words—a second attempt foiled by the over-caution of experienced begs—is surprised in his bivouac by Ta?bal—face to face with Ta?bal—his new gosha-g?r—his dwindling company—wounded—left alone, is struck by his gift-sword—escapes to A?sh—The Kh?n moves from K?s?n against Andij?n—his disposition of B?bur’s lands—Qa?bar-i-‘al?’s counsel to B?bur rejected—B?bur is treated by the Younger Kh?n’s surgeon—tales of Mugh?l surgery—Qa?bar-i-‘al? flees to Ta?bal in fear through his unacceptable counsel—B?bur moves for Akhs?—a lost chance—minor actions—an episode of P?p—The Kh?ns do not take Andij?n—B?bur invited into Akhs?—Ta?bal’s brother B?yaz?d joins him with N??ir M?r?n-sh?h?—Ta?bal asks help from Shaib?n?—On news of Shaib?n?’s consent the Kh?ns retire from Andij?n—B?bur’s affairs in Akhs?—he attempts to defend it—incidents of the defence—B?bur wounded—unequal strength of the opponents—he flees with 20-30 men—incidents of the flight—B?bur left alone—is overtaken by two foes—his perilous position—a messenger arrives from Ta?bal’s brother B?yaz?d—B?bur expecting death, quotes Niz??m?—(the narrative breaks off in the middle of the verse)
Translator’s Note.—908 to 909 AH.—1503 to 1504 AD.—B?bur will have been rescued—is with The Kh?ns in the battle and defeat by Shaib?n? at Arch??n—takes refuge in the Asfara hills—there spends a year in misery and poverty—events in Fargh?na and T?shk?nt—Shaib?n? sends the Mugh?l horde back to K?shghar—his disposition of the women of The Kh?n’s family—B?bur plans to go to ?usain B??-qar? in Khur?s?n—changes his aim for K?bul
|[End of Translator’s Note.]|
910 AH.—June 14th 1504 to June 4th 1505 AD.—B?bur halts on an alp of ?i??r—enters his 22nd (lunar) year—delays his march in hope of adherents—writes a second time of the stinginess of Khusrau Sh?h to himself—recalls Sher?m T? T?agh?? Mugh?l’s earlier waverings in support—is joined by Khusrau Sh?h’s brother B?q? Beg—they start for K?bul—Accretions of force—their families left in Fort Ajar (K?hmard)—Jah?ng?r marries a cousin—B?q? advises his dismissal to Khur?s?n—B?bur is loyal to his half-brother—Jah?ng?r is seduced, later, by disloyal Begch?k chiefs—?usain B??-qar? summons help against Shaib?n?—Despair in B?bur’s party at ?usain’s plan of “defence, not attack”—Qa?bar-i-‘al? dismissed to please B?q?—Khusrau makes abject submission to B?bur—M?rz? Kh?n demands vengeance on him—Khusrau’s submission having been on terms, he is let go free—B?bur resumes his march—first sees Canopus—is joined by tribesmen—Khusrau’s brother Wal? flees to the A?zbegs and is executed—Risks run by the families now fetched from K?hmard—K?bul surrendered to B?bur by Muq?m Argh?n—Muq?m’s family protected—Description of K?bul (pp. 199 to 277)—Muq?m leaves for Qandah?r—Allotment of fiefs—Excess levy in grain—Foray on the Sult??n Mas‘?d? Haz?ra—B?bur’s first move for Hind?st?n—Khaibar traversed—B?gr?m visited—B?q? Beg prevents crossing the Sind—and persuades for Koh?t—A plan for Bangash, Bann? and thence return to K?bul—Y?r-i-?usain Dary?-kh?n? asks for permission to raise a force for B?bur, east of the Sind—Move to Th?l, Bann?, and the Dasht—return route varied without consulting B?bur—P?r K?n?’s tomb visited—through the Pawat-pass into D?k?—horse-food fails—baggage left behind—men of all conditions walk to Ghazn?—spectacle of the ?b-ist?da—mirage and birds—Jah?ng?r is B?bur’s host in Ghazn?—heavy floods—K?bul reached after a disastrous expedition of four months—N??ir’s misconduct abetted by two Begch?k chiefs—he and they flee into Badakhsh?n—Khusrau Sh?h’s schemes fail in Her?t—imbroglio between him and N??ir—Shaib?n? attempts ?i??r but abandons the siege on his brother’s death—Khusrau attempts ?i??r and is there killed—his followers revolt against B?bur—his death quenches the fire of sedition
911 AH.—June 4th 1505 to May 24th 1506 AD.—Death of B?bur’s mother—B?bur’s illness stops a move for Qandah?r—an earth-quake—campaign against and capture of Qal?t-i-ghilz??—B?q? Beg dismissed towards Hind?st?n—murdered in the Khaibar—Turkm?n Haz?ra raided—Nijr-a? tribute collected—Jah?ng?r misbehaves and runs away—B?bur summoned by ?usain B??-qar? against Shaib?n?—Shaib?n? takes Khw?rizm and Ch?n ??f? is killed—Death and biography of ?usain B??-qar? (256 to 292)—his burial and joint-successors
912 AH.—May 24th 1506 to May 13th 1507 AD.—B?bur, without news of ?usain B??-qar?’s death, obeys his summons and leaves K?bul—Jah?ng?r flees from B?bur’s route—N??ir defeats Shaib?n?’s men in Badakhsh?n—B?bur, while in K?hmard, hears of ?usain’s death—continues his march with anxious thought for the T?m?rid dynasty—Jah?ng?r waits on him and accompanies him to Her?t—Co-alition of Khur?s?n M?rz?s against Shaib?n?—their meeting with B?bur—etiquette of B?bur’s reception—an entertainment to him—of the Ch?ng?z-t?r?—B?bur claims the ceremonial observance due to his military achievements—entertainments and B?bur’s obedience to Mu?ammadan Law against wine—his reflections on the M?rz?s—difficulties of winter-plans (300, 307)—he sees the sights of Her?—visits the Beg?ms—the ceremonies observed—tells of his hitherto abstention from wine and of his present inclination to drink it—Qas?m Beg’s interference with those pressing B?bur to break the Law—B?bur’s poor carving—engages Ma‘??ma in marriage—leaves for K?bul—certain retainers stay behind—a perilous journey through snow to a wrong pass out of the Her?rud valley—arrival of the party in Yakaa?l?ng—joy in their safety and comfort—Shibr-t? traversed into Gh?r-bun?—Turkm?n Haz?ra raided—News reaches B?bur of conspiracy in K?bul to put M?rz? Kh?n in his place—B?bur concerts plans with the loyal K?bul garrison—moves on through snow and in terrible cold—attacks and defeats the rebels—narrowly escaped death—attributes his safety to prayer—-deals mercifully, from family considerations, with the rebel chiefs—reflects on their behaviour to him who has protected them—asserts that his only aim is to write the truth—letters-of-victory sent out—Mu?. ?usain D?ghl?t and M?rz? Kh?n banished—Spring excursion to Koh-d?man—N??ir, driven from Badakhsh?n, takes refuge with B?bur
913 AH.—May 13th 1507 to May 2nd 1508 AD.—Raid on the Ghilj? Afgh?ns—separation of the Fifth (Khams)—wild-ass, hunting—Shaib?n? moves against Khur?s?n—Irresolution of the T?m?rid M?rz?s—Infatuation of ??’n-n?n Argh?n—Shaib?n? takes Her?—his doings there—Defeat and death of two B??-qar?s—The Argh?ns in Qandah?r make overtures to B?bur—he starts to join them against Shaib?n?—meets Ma‘??ma in Ghazn? on her way to K?bul—spares Hind?st?n traders—meets Jah?ng?r’s widow and infant-son coming from Her?t—The Argh?n chiefs provoke attack on Qandah?r—B?bur’s army—organization and terminology—wins the battle of Qandah?r and enters the fort—its spoils—N??ir put in command—B?bur returns to K?bul rich in goods and fame—marries Ma‘??ma—Shaib?n? lays siege to Qandah?r—Alarm in K?bul at his approach—M?rz? Kh?n and Sh?h Beg?m betake themselves to Badakhsh?n—B?bur sets out for Hind?st?n leaving ‘Abdu’r-razz?q in K?bul—Afgh?n highwaymen—A raid for food—M?hchuchak’s marriage—Hind?st?n plan abandoned—N?r-gal and K?n?r visited—News of Shaib?n?’s withdrawal from Qandah?r—B?bur returns to K?bul—gives Ghazn? to N??ir—assumes the title of P?dsh?h—Birth of Hum?y?n, feast and chronogram
914 AH.—May 2nd 1508 to April 21st 1509 AD.—Raid on the Mahmand Afgh?ns—Seditious offenders reprieved—Khusrau Sh?h’s former retainers march off from K?bul—‘Abdu’r-razz?q comes from his district to near K?bul—not known to have joined the rebels—earlier hints to B?bur of this “incredible” rebellion—later warnings of an immediate rising
Translator’s Note.—914 to 925 AH.—1508 to 1519 AD.—Date of composition of preceding narrative—Loss of matter here seems partly or wholly due to B?bur’s death—Sources helping to fill the Gap—Events of the remainder of 914 AH.—The mutiny swiftly quelled—B?bur’s five-fold victory over hostile champions—Sa‘?d Chaghat?? takes refuge with him in a quiet K?bul—Shaib?n?’s murders of Chaghat?? and D?ghl?t chiefs