Produced by Greg Bergquist, Tom Cosmas and the Online
Distributed Proofreading Team at http://www.pgdp.net (This
file was produced from images generously made available
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Produced by Greg Bergquist, Tom Cosmas and the Online
This is a subject in which every boy is interested. While few mechanics have the opportunity to actually build an automobile, it is the knowledge which he must acquire about every particular device used, that enables him to repair and put such machines in order. The aim of this book is to make the boy acquainted with each element, so that he may understand why it is made in that special way, and what the advantages and disadvantages are of the different types. To that end each structure is shown in detail as much as possible, and the parts separated so as to give a clear insight of the different functions, all of which are explained by original drawings specially prepared to aid the reader.
To the boy who wants to know the theory and the practical working of the different kinds of motors, told in language which he can understand, and illustrated with clear and explicit drawings, this volume will be appreciated. It sets forth the groundwork on which power is based, and includes steam generators, and engines, as well as wind and water motors, and thoroughly describes the Internal Combustion Engine. It has special chapters on Carbureters, Ignition, and Electrical systems used, and particularly points out the parts and fittings required with all devices needed in enginery. It explains the value of compounding, condensing, pre-heating and expansion, together with the methods used to calculate and transmit power. Numerous original illustrations.
This work is not intended to set forth the exploits of aviators nor to give a history of the Art. It is a book of instructions intended to point out the theories of flying, as given by the pioneers, the practical application of power to the various flying structures; how they are built; the different methods of controlling them; the advantages and disadvantages of the types now in use; and suggestions as to the directions in which improvements are required. It distinctly points out wherein mechanical flight differs from bird flight, and what are the relations of shape, form, size and weight. It treats of kites, gliders and model aeroplanes, and has an interesting chapter on the aeroplane and its uses in the great war. All the illustrations have been specially prepared for the work.
CUPPLES & LEON COMPANY
|The Subject. The Inquisitive Trait. The Reasons for Doing Things. The Mystery of Mechanism. Curiosity which prompts Investigation. The Sum of Knowledge.|
|Chapter I. Motors and Motive Power||5-21|
|The Water Fall. Water moves in One Direction only. What is Energy. Stored or Potential Energy. Kinetic Energy. Friction. Resistance. Inertia. The Law of Bodies. Internal and External Resistance. Momentum. Energy Indestructible. Wind Power. Rectilinear Motion. Oscillating Motion. Movements in Nature. How Man Utilizes the Various Movements. Kinds of Potential Energy. The Power in Heat. Energy in Steam. Energy from the Sun. Power from Water. The Turbine. Calculating Power of a Turbine. Horse Power. Foot Pounds. Power and Time. Gravitation. Utilizing the pull of Gravity. Taking Advantages of Forces. Pitting Forces Against each Other. Centripetal and Centrifugal Forces. Power not Created. Developing the Power of Motors. Experimenting.|
|Chapter II. The Steam Generator||22-31|
|Water as an absorbent of Heat. Classification of Boilers. Mode of applying Heat. The Cylindrical Boiler. The Cornish Boiler. The Water Tube Boiler. Various Boiler Types. Compound Steam Boiler. Locomotive Steam Boiler. Vertical Steam Boiler.|
|Chapter III. Steam Engines||32-59|
|The Original Turbine Engine. The Reciprocating Engine. Atmospheric Engine. The Piston. Importance of the Valve. Expanding the Steam. Balanced Valve. Rotary Valve. Engine Accessories. Efficiency of Engines. How Steam acts in a Cylinder. Indicating the Engine. Mean Efficiency. Calculating Horse Power. Condensation. Atmospheric Pressure. The Condenser. Pre-heating. Superheaters. Compounding. Triple and Quadruple Expansion Engines. The Steam Turbine. Pressure and Velocity. Form of Blades. Compounding the Jet.|
|Chapter IV. Fuels and Combustion||60-67|
|Solid Fuels. Liquid Fuels. Combustion. Oxidation. The Hydro-Carbon Gases. Oxygen and the Atmosphere. Internal Combustion. Vaporizing Fuel. Explosion by Heat Compression. How Compression Heats. Elasticity of Gases. Advantages of Compression. The Necessity of Compression.|
|Chapter V. The Internal Combustion Engine||68-82|
|Fixed Gases. Gas Engines. Energy of Carbon and Hydrogen. The Two-Cycle Type. Advantages of the Two-Cycle Engine. The Four-Cycle Engine. The Four Cycles. Ignition Point. Advantages of the Four-Cycle Type. The Loss in Power. Engine Construction. Valve Grinding. The Crank Shaft. The Cams.|
|Chapter VI. Carbureters||83-101|
|Functions of a Carbureter. Rich Mixtures. Lean Mixtures. Types of Carbureters. The Sprayer. The Surface Type. Governing a Carbureter. Primary Air. Needle Valve. Secondary Air. Requirements in a Carbureter. Size of a Carbureter. Rule for Size of Carbureters. The Throttle. Flooding. Adjustability. Surface Carbureters. Float Chamber.|
|Chapter VII. Ignition, Low Tension System||102-120|
|Electricity. Magnetism. The Armature. Characteristics of Electricity. Make and Break System. Voltage. High and Low Voltage. Low Tension method. Disadvantages of Make and Break. Amperes. Resistance. Direct Current. Alternating Current. Induction. Generating Electricity. Primary Battery. Making a Dry Cell. Energy in a cell. Wiring Methods. Series Connection. Multiple Connection. Series Multiple. Watts. Testing a Cell. Testing with Instruments. Simple Battery Make and Brake System. To Advance the Spark. The Magneto in the Circuit. Magneto Spark Plug.|
|Chapter VIII. Ignition, High Tension||121-140|
|Magnetos. Alternating Current. Cutting Lines of Force. Plurality of Loops. The Electro Magnet. The Dynamo Form. The Magneto Form. Advantages of the Magneto. Induction Coil. Changing the Current. Construction of a Coil. Primary Coil. Secondary Coil. Contact Maker. High Tension with Battery and Coil. Metallic Core for Induction Coil. The Condenser. Operations of a Vibrator Coil. The Distributor. Circuiting with Distributor.|
|Chapter IX. Mechanical Devices Utilized in Power||141-157|
|The Unit of Time. Horse Power. Proney Brake. Reversing Mechanism. Double Eccentric Reversing Gear. Balanced Slide Valve. Balanced Throttle Valve. Engine Governors. Injectors. Feed Water Heaters.|
|Chapter X. Valves and Valve Fittings||158-171|
|Check Valve. Gate Valve. Globe Valve. The Corliss Valve. Corliss Valve-operating Mechanism. Angle Valve. Rotary Valves. Rotable Engine Valves. Throttle Valves. Blow-off Valves. Pop-Safety Valves.|
|Chapter XI. Cams and Eccentrics||172-178|
|Simple Cams. Wiper Wheels. Cylindrical Cam Motion. Eccentrics. Triangularly-formed Eccentrics.|
|Chapter XII. Gears and Gearing||179-190|
|Racks and Pinions. Mangle Rack. Controlling the Pinion. Dead Center. Crank Motion Substitute. Mangle Wheels. Quick Return Motion. Accelerated Motion. Quick-return Gearing. Scroll Gearing.|
|Chapter XIII. Special Types of Engines||191-201|
|Temperatures. Artificial Heat. Zero. Liquids and Gases. Refrigeration. Rotary Engines. Caloric Engines. Adhesion Engines.|
|Chapter XIV. Enginery in the Development of the Human Race||202-207|
|Power in Transportation. Power vs. Education and the Arts. Lack of Power in the Ancient World. The Early Days of the Republic. Lack of Cohesiveness in Countries Without Power. The Railroad as a Factor in Civilization. The Wonderful Effects of Power. England as a User of Power. The Automobile. High Character of Motor Study. The Unlimited Field of Power.|
|Chapter XV. The Energy of the Sun, and How Heat is Measured||208-216|
|Fuel Economy. Direct Conversion. The Measurement of Heat. Caloric. Material Theory. Heat Transmitted in Three Ways. Conduction. Convection. Radiation.|
The motor is the great dominating factor in the world of industry. Every wheel and spindle; every shaft and loom, and every piece of mechanism which has motion, derives it from some sort of motor.
The term motor has a wider significance than any other word. A steam engine is a motor, and so, also, is a dynamo, a water wheel or a wind mill.
It would be just as descriptive to call a wind mill a wind motor, or a steam engine a steam motor, as to adhere to the old terms; and, on the other hand, since it would be out of place to call a dynamo or a wind mill an engine, the word motor seems best adapted to express the meaning of every type of mechanism which transforms energy into motion.