Motors

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Every Boy’s
Mechanical
Library

MOTORS

Every Boy’s Mechanical Library

By J. S. ZERBE, M.E.

Price, per volume, 60 cents, Net. Postage extra.


AUTOMOBILES

This is a subject in which every boy is interested. While few mechanics have the opportunity to actually build an automobile, it is the knowledge which he must acquire about every particular device used, that enables him to repair and put such machines in order. The aim of this book is to make the boy acquainted with each element, so that he may understand why it is made in that special way, and what the advantages and disadvantages are of the different types. To that end each structure is shown in detail as much as possible, and the parts separated so as to give a clear insight of the different functions, all of which are explained by original drawings specially prepared to aid the reader.

MOTORS

To the boy who wants to know the theory and the practical working of the different kinds of motors, told in language which he can understand, and illustrated with clear and explicit drawings, this volume will be appreciated. It sets forth the groundwork on which power is based, and includes steam generators, and engines, as well as wind and water motors, and thoroughly describes the Internal Combustion Engine. It has special chapters on Carbureters, Ignition, and Electrical systems used, and particularly points out the parts and fittings required with all devices needed in enginery. It explains the value of compounding, condensing, pre-heating and expansion, together with the methods used to calculate and transmit power. Numerous original illustrations.

AEROPLANES

This work is not intended to set forth the exploits of aviators nor to give a history of the Art. It is a book of instructions intended to point out the theories of flying, as given by the pioneers, the practical application of power to the various flying structures; how they are built; the different methods of controlling them; the advantages and disadvantages of the types now in use; and suggestions as to the directions in which improvements are required. It distinctly points out wherein mechanical flight differs from bird flight, and what are the relations of shape, form, size and weight. It treats of kites, gliders and model aeroplanes, and has an interesting chapter on the aeroplane and its uses in the great war. All the illustrations have been specially prepared for the work.


CUPPLES & LEON CO., Publishers, NEW YORK

Every Boy’s Mechanical Library

MOTORS

BY

J. S. ZERBE, M.E.

Author of
Aeroplanes—Automobiles

ILLUSTRATED

NEW YORK
CUPPLES & LEON COMPANY

Copyright, 1915, by
CUPPLES & LEON COMPANY

CONTENTS

PAGE
Introductory1
The Subject. The Inquisitive Trait. The Reasons for Doing Things. The Mystery of Mechanism. Curiosity which prompts Investigation. The Sum of Knowledge.
Chapter I. Motors and Motive Power5-21
The Water Fall. Water moves in One Direction only. What is Energy. Stored or Potential Energy. Kinetic Energy. Friction. Resistance. Inertia. The Law of Bodies. Internal and External Resistance. Momentum. Energy Indestructible. Wind Power. Rectilinear Motion. Oscillating Motion. Movements in Nature. How Man Utilizes the Various Movements. Kinds of Potential Energy. The Power in Heat. Energy in Steam. Energy from the Sun. Power from Water. The Turbine. Calculating Power of a Turbine. Horse Power. Foot Pounds. Power and Time. Gravitation. Utilizing the pull of Gravity. Taking Advantages of Forces. Pitting Forces Against each Other. Centripetal and Centrifugal Forces. Power not Created. Developing the Power of Motors. Experimenting.
Chapter II. The Steam Generator22-31
Water as an absorbent of Heat. Classification of Boilers. Mode of applying Heat. The Cylindrical Boiler. The Cornish Boiler. The Water Tube Boiler. Various Boiler Types. Compound Steam Boiler. Locomotive Steam Boiler. Vertical Steam Boiler.
Chapter III. Steam Engines32-59
The Original Turbine Engine. The Reciprocating Engine. Atmospheric Engine. The Piston. Importance of the Valve. Expanding the Steam. Balanced Valve. Rotary Valve. Engine Accessories. Efficiency of Engines. How Steam acts in a Cylinder. Indicating the Engine. Mean Efficiency. Calculating Horse Power. Condensation. Atmospheric Pressure. The Condenser. Pre-heating. Superheaters. Compounding. Triple and Quadruple Expansion Engines. The Steam Turbine. Pressure and Velocity. Form of Blades. Compounding the Jet.
Chapter IV. Fuels and Combustion60-67
Solid Fuels. Liquid Fuels. Combustion. Oxidation. The Hydro-Carbon Gases. Oxygen and the Atmosphere. Internal Combustion. Vaporizing Fuel. Explosion by Heat Compression. How Compression Heats. Elasticity of Gases. Advantages of Compression. The Necessity of Compression.
Chapter V. The Internal Combustion Engine68-82
Fixed Gases. Gas Engines. Energy of Carbon and Hydrogen. The Two-Cycle Type. Advantages of the Two-Cycle Engine. The Four-Cycle Engine. The Four Cycles. Ignition Point. Advantages of the Four-Cycle Type. The Loss in Power. Engine Construction. Valve Grinding. The Crank Shaft. The Cams.
Chapter VI. Carbureters83-101
Functions of a Carbureter. Rich Mixtures. Lean Mixtures. Types of Carbureters. The Sprayer. The Surface Type. Governing a Carbureter. Primary Air. Needle Valve. Secondary Air. Requirements in a Carbureter. Size of a Carbureter. Rule for Size of Carbureters. The Throttle. Flooding. Adjustability. Surface Carbureters. Float Chamber.
Chapter VII. Ignition, Low Tension System102-120
Electricity. Magnetism. The Armature. Characteristics of Electricity. Make and Break System. Voltage. High and Low Voltage. Low Tension method. Disadvantages of Make and Break. Amperes. Resistance. Direct Current. Alternating Current. Induction. Generating Electricity. Primary Battery. Making a Dry Cell. Energy in a cell. Wiring Methods. Series Connection. Multiple Connection. Series Multiple. Watts. Testing a Cell. Testing with Instruments. Simple Battery Make and Brake System. To Advance the Spark. The Magneto in the Circuit. Magneto Spark Plug.
Chapter VIII. Ignition, High Tension121-140
Magnetos. Alternating Current. Cutting Lines of Force. Plurality of Loops. The Electro Magnet. The Dynamo Form. The Magneto Form. Advantages of the Magneto. Induction Coil. Changing the Current. Construction of a Coil. Primary Coil. Secondary Coil. Contact Maker. High Tension with Battery and Coil. Metallic Core for Induction Coil. The Condenser. Operations of a Vibrator Coil. The Distributor. Circuiting with Distributor.
Chapter IX. Mechanical Devices Utilized in Power141-157
The Unit of Time. Horse Power. Proney Brake. Reversing Mechanism. Double Eccentric Reversing Gear. Balanced Slide Valve. Balanced Throttle Valve. Engine Governors. Injectors. Feed Water Heaters.
Chapter X. Valves and Valve Fittings158-171
Check Valve. Gate Valve. Globe Valve. The Corliss Valve. Corliss Valve-operating Mechanism. Angle Valve. Rotary Valves. Rotable Engine Valves. Throttle Valves. Blow-off Valves. Pop-Safety Valves.
Chapter XI. Cams and Eccentrics172-178
Simple Cams. Wiper Wheels. Cylindrical Cam Motion. Eccentrics. Triangularly-formed Eccentrics.
Chapter XII. Gears and Gearing179-190
Racks and Pinions. Mangle Rack. Controlling the Pinion. Dead Center. Crank Motion Substitute. Mangle Wheels. Quick Return Motion. Accelerated Motion. Quick-return Gearing. Scroll Gearing.
Chapter XIII. Special Types of Engines191-201
Temperatures. Artificial Heat. Zero. Liquids and Gases. Refrigeration. Rotary Engines. Caloric Engines. Adhesion Engines.
Chapter XIV. Enginery in the Development of the Human Race202-207
Power in Transportation. Power vs. Education and the Arts. Lack of Power in the Ancient World. The Early Days of the Republic. Lack of Cohesiveness in Countries Without Power. The Railroad as a Factor in Civilization. The Wonderful Effects of Power. England as a User of Power. The Automobile. High Character of Motor Study. The Unlimited Field of Power.
Chapter XV. The Energy of the Sun, and How Heat is Measured208-216
Fuel Economy. Direct Conversion. The Measurement of Heat. Caloric. Material Theory. Heat Transmitted in Three Ways. Conduction. Convection. Radiation.
Glossary217

LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS

FIG.PAGE
1.   Undershot Wheel13
2.   Overshot Wheel14
3.   Primitive Boiler24
4.   Return Tubular Boiler25
5.   Cornish, or Scotch Boiler25
6.   Water Tube Boiler. End view27
7.   Water Tube Boiler. Side view29
8.   The Original Engine33
9.   Horizontal Section of Tube33
10.  Steam-Atmospheric Engine35
11.  Simple Valve Motion. First position38
12.  Simple Valve Motion. Second position38
13.  Effective pressure in a Cylinder42
14.  Indicating pressure line44
15.  Indicating the Engine45
16.  Compound Engine53
16a. Relative Piston Pressures54
17.  Changing Pressure into Velocity55
18.  Reaction against Air56
19.  Reaction against Surface56
20.  Turbine. Straight Blades57
21.  Curved Blades58
22.  Compound Turbine58
23.  Two-Cycle Engine. First position71
24.  Two-Cycle Engine. Second position73
25.  Two-Cycle Engine. Third position73
26.  Four-Cycle Engine. First position75
27.  Four-Cycle Engine. Second position75
28.  Four-Cycle Engine. Third position76
29.  Four-Cycle Engine. Fourth position76
30.  Valve Grinding81
31.  Carbureter87
32.  Carbureter95
33.v Surface Carbureter98
34.  Dry Cell108
35.  Series Connection109
36.  Multiple, or Parallel Connection110
37.  Series-Multiple Connection111
38.  Circuit Testing113
39.  Make and Break, with Battery114
40.  Make and Break, with Magneto117
41.  Magneto Spark Plug119
42.  Illustrating Alternating Current122
43.  Alternating Current. Second position122
44.  Alternating Current. Third position123
45.  Alternating Current. Fourth position124
46.  Making the Circuit125
47.  The Dynamo126
48.  The Magneto126
49.  Current by Induction128
50.  Induction Coil129
51.  Typical Induction Coil130
52.  Contact Maker131
53.  Typical Circuiting, Jump spark Ignition132
54.  Metallic Core, Induction Coil133
55.  Condenser134
56.  Vibrator Coil and Connections135
57.  The Distributer137
58.  Circuiting with Distributer138
59.  Illustrating the Unit of Time142
60.  The Proney Brake143
61.  Double Eccentric Reversing Gear146
62.  Reversing Gear, Neutral146
63.  Reversing Gear, Reversed147
64.  Single Eccentric Reversing Gear147
65.  Balanced Slide Valve148
66.  Valve Chest. Double Port Exhaust149
67.  Balanced Throttle-Valve150
68.  Watt’s Governor151
69.  The Original Injector152
70.  Injector with movable Combining Tube154
71.  Feed Water Heater156
72.  Check Valve158
73.  Gate Valve159
74.  Globe Valve160
75.  Corliss Valve162
76.  Corliss Valve-operating Mechanism163
77.  Angle Valve164
78.  Rotary-Valve165
79.  Two-way Rotary165
80.  Rotary Type166
81.  Two-Way Rotary Type166
82.  Butterfly Throttle167
83.  Angle Throttle167
84.  Slide Throttle168
85.  Two-slide Throttle168
86.  Blow-off Valve169
87.  Safety Pop Valve170
88.  Heart Shaped173
89.  Elliptic173
90.  Double Elliptic173
91.  Single Wiper174
92.  Double Wiper174
93.  Tilting Cam174
94.  Cam Sector175
95.  Grooved Cam175
96.  Reciprocating Motion175
97.  Pivoted Follower for Cam176
98.  Eccentric177
99.  Eccentric Cam177
100. Triangularly-formed Eccentric178
101. Rack and Pinion180
102. Rack Motion180
103. Plain Mangle Rack181
104.Mangle Rack Motion181
105. Alternate Circular Motion181
106. Controlling Pinion for Mangle Rack182
107. Illustrating Crank-pin Movement183
108. The Dead Center184
109. Crank Motion Substitute184
110. Mangle Wheel185
111. Quick Return Motion186
112. Accelerated Circular Motion187
113. Quick Return Gearing188
114. Scroll Gearing189
115. Simple Rotary Engine196
116. Double-feed Rotary Engine198
117. Adhesion Motor200

INTRODUCTORY

The motor is the great dominating factor in the world of industry. Every wheel and spindle; every shaft and loom, and every piece of mechanism which has motion, derives it from some sort of motor.

The term motor has a wider significance than any other word. A steam engine is a motor, and so, also, is a dynamo, a water wheel or a wind mill.

It would be just as descriptive to call a wind mill a wind motor, or a steam engine a steam motor, as to adhere to the old terms; and, on the other hand, since it would be out of place to call a dynamo or a wind mill an engine, the word motor seems best adapted to express the meaning of every type of mechanism which transforms energy into motion.

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