Yachting, Vol. 1

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THE JACK OF 1606 A.D.

St. Andrew of Scotland.
St. George of England.
St. Patrick of Ireland.
THE UNION JACK.

THE BADMINTON LIBRARY
OF
SPORTS AND PASTIMES

EDITED BY
HIS GRACE THE DUKE OF BEAUFORT, K.G.
ASSISTED BY ALFRED E. T. WATSON

YACHTING
I.

YACHTING

BY
SIR EDWARD SULLIVAN, BART.
LORD BRASSEY, K.C.B., C. E. SETH-SMITH, C.B., G. L. WATSON
R. T. PRITCHETT
SIR GEORGE LEACH, K.C.B., Vice-President Y.R.A.
‘THALASSA’
THE EARL OF PEMBROKE AND MONTGOMERY
E. F. KNIGHT and REV. G. L. BLAKE

Yachts.

IN TWO VOLUMES—VOL. I.

WITH ILLUSTRATIONS BY R. T. PRITCHETT
AND FROM PHOTOGRAPHS

LONDON
LONGMANS, GREEN, AND CO.
1894

DEDICATION
TO
H.R.H. THE PRINCE OF WALES

Badminton: May 1885.

Having received permission to dedicate these volumes, the Badminton Library of Sports and Pastimes, to His Royal Highness the Prince of Wales, I do so feeling that I am dedicating them to one of the best and keenest sportsmen of our time. I can say, from personal observation, that there is no man who can extricate himself from a bustling and pushing crowd of horsemen, when a fox breaks covert, more dexterously and quickly than His Royal Highness; and that when hounds run hard over a big country, no man can take a line of his own and live with them better. Also, when the wind has been blowing hard, often have I seen His Royal Highness knocking over driven grouse and partridges and high-rocketing pheasants in first-rate workmanlike style. He is held to be a good yachtsman, and as Commodore of the Royal Yacht Squadron is looked up to by those who love that pleasant and exhilarating pastime. His encouragement of racing is well known, and his attendance at the University, Public School, and other important Matches testifies to his being, like most English gentlemen, fond of all manly sports. I consider it a great privilege to be allowed to dedicate these volumes to so eminent a sportsman as His Royal Highness the Prince of Wales, and I do so with sincere feelings of respect and esteem and loyal devotion.

BEAUFORT.

BADMINTON.

PREFACE

A few lines only are necessary to explain the object with which these volumes are put forth. There is no modern encyclopædia to which the inexperienced man, who seeks guidance in the practice of the various British Sports and Pastimes, can turn for information. Some books there are on Hunting, some on Racing, some on Lawn Tennis, some on Fishing, and so on; but one Library, or succession of volumes, which treats of the Sports and Pastimes indulged in by Englishmen—and women—is wanting. The Badminton Library is offered to supply the want. Of the imperfections which must be found in the execution of such a design we are conscious. Experts often differ. But this we may say, that those who are seeking for knowledge on any of the subjects dealt with will find the results of many years’ experience written by men who are in every case adepts at the Sport or Pastime of which they write. It is to point the way to success to those who are ignorant of the sciences they aspire to master, and who have no friend to help or coach them, that these volumes are written.

To those who have worked hard to place simply and clearly before the reader that which he will find within, the best thanks of the Editor are due. That it has been no slight labour to supervise all that has been written, he must acknowledge; but it has been a labour of love, and very much lightened by the courtesy of the Publisher, by the unflinching, indefatigable assistance of the Sub-Editor, and by the intelligent and able arrangement of each subject by the various writers, who are so thoroughly masters of the subjects of which they treat. The reward we all hope to reap is that our work may prove useful to this and future generations.

THE EDITOR.

CONTENTS OF THE FIRST VOLUME

  • CHAPTER PAGE
  • Introduction
    By Sir Edward Sullivan, Bart. 1
  • Ocean Cruising
    By Lord Brassey, K.C.B. 18
  • Corinthian Deep-Sea Cruising
    By C. E. Seth-Smith, C.B. (late commanding London Brigade Royal Naval Volunteers) 41
  • The Evolution of the Modern Racing Yacht
    By G. L. Watson. 50
  • Sliding Keels and Centreboards
    By R. T. Pritchett. 102
  • Recollections of Schooner Racing
    By Sir George Leach, K.C.B., Vice-President Y.R.A. 108
  • The Racing Rules and the Rules of Rating
    By ‘Thalassa.’ 146
  • Yacht’s Sailing Boats
    By the Earl of Pembroke and Montgomery. 187
  • Small Yacht Racing on the Solent
    By ‘Thalassa.’ 222
  • Fitting out a Fifty-Tonner to go Foreign.
    By E. F. Knight. 295
  • Baltic Cruising
    By E. F. Knight. 308
  • Five-Tonners and Five-Raters in the North
    By G. L. Blake. 322
  • Yacht Insurance
    By G. L. Blake. 407

ILLUSTRATIONS IN THE FIRST VOLUME

(Reproduced by J. D. Cooper and Messrs. Walker & Boutall)

FULL-PAGE ILLUSTRATIONS

 ARTISTTO FACE PAGE
Union JackFrontispiece
‘Britannia,’ H.R.H. Prince of WalesFrom a photograph by Wm. U. Kirk, of Cowes50
‘Varuna,’ 40-RaterFrom a photograph by Adamson, of Rothesay54
‘Dora,’ 10-Tonner58
‘Arrow’—LinesG. L. Watson72
‘Lethe’—KeelFrom a photograph78
Saloon of ‘Thistle’82
‘Jullanar’From a photograph by Adamson, of Rothesay88
Midship SectionsJ. M. Soper, M.I.N.A.102
‘Egeria’R. T. Pritchett114
‘Egeria’ and ‘Oimara’134
‘Seabelle’138
Racing Flags, Schooners, Cutters, Yawls, &c 140
‘Savourna,’ 5-RaterFrom a photograph by Adamson, of Rothesay244
‘The Babe,’ 2½-RaterFrom a photograph by Symonds, of Portsmouth246
‘Dacia,’ 5-Rater252
Solent Owners’ Racing Colours 276
Start of Small Raters on the ClydeFrom a photograph by Adamson, of Rothesay354
‘Wenonah,’ 2½-Rater360
‘Red Lancer,’ 5-Rater372
Commercial Code of Signals 394

ILLUSTRATIONS IN TEXT

Before the Start (Vignette) Title-page
Victoria Cup, 1893R. T. Pritchett1
‘Sunbeam’ (R.Y.S), 187419
‘Sunbeam’—Midship SectionSt. Clare Byrne, of Liverpool24
‘Sunbeam’—Lines29
‘Cygnet,’ Cutter, 1846—Lines and Midship SectionG. L. Watson54
‘Problem,’ 1852—Profile and Deck PlanHunt’s Magazine55
‘Varuna,’ 1892—ProfileG. L. Watson55
Vanderdecken’s Tonnage CheaterHunt’s Magazine56
Dog-legged SternpostG. L. Watson57
‘Quiraing,’ 1877—Immersed Counter58
‘Britannia,’ 1893—Cutwater60
‘Thistle,’ 1887—Cutwater60
Diagram of Length and Displacement of 5-TonnersG. L. Watson62
Profiles of 5-Tonners63
Sections showing Decrease of Breadth and Increase of Depth in 5-Tonners under 94 and 1730 Rules63
Diagram of Variation under Different Rules64
Diagram showing Variation of Dimensions, &c., with Years; 40-Raters; L. and S.A. Rule.67
Profiles of 40-Raters67
Midship Sections of 40-Raters68
‘Leopard,’ 1807—Lines and Midship SectionLinn Ratsey, of Cowes72
‘Mosquito,’ 1848—Lines and Midship SectionT. Waterman75
‘Lethe’—Midship SectionG. L. Watson79
‘Valkyrie’—Profile82
‘Vigilant’—Profile82
‘Britannia’ Cutter—General Arrangement Plan84
S.S. ‘Merkara’—Resistance Curves87
‘Jullanar,’ Yawl, 1875—Midship SectionE. H. Bentall, Esq.89
‘Jullanar,’ Yawl—Lines91
‘Evolution,’ 1880—Lines and Midship Section92
‘Meteor’ (late ‘Thistle’), 1887—Lines and Midship SectionG. L. Watson94
‘Florinda,’ Yawl, 1873—LinesCamper & Nicholson, of Gosport97
‘Kriemhilda,’ 1872—ProfileMichael Ratsey, of Cowes98
‘Florinda,’ Yawl, 1873—PlansCamper & Nicholson, of Gosport100
‘Florinda,’ Yawl, 1873—Midship Section101
H.M. Brig ‘Lady Nelson,’ with three Keels, 1797R. T. Pritchett102
Diagram of Boat with one Centreboard, 1774103
Diagram of Boat with three Sliding Keels, 1789103
Diagrams showing use of Three Keels in ‘Laying to,’ ‘on a Wind,’ and Scudding104
‘Cumberland,’ with Five Sliding KeelsFrom a model in possession of Taylor family105
‘Cumberland,’ showing the Five Keels Down105
H.M. ‘Trial’ Cutter, 1791—Sheer DraughtR. T. Pritchett107
‘Kestrel,’ Schooner, 1839108
‘Pantomime,’ Schooner, 1865—Lines and Midship SectionMichael Ratsey, of Cowes112
‘Cambria,’ beating ‘Dauntless’ in 1870
(From picture at R.T.Y.C.)
R. T. Pritchett125
‘Dauntless,’ Schooner (N.Y.Y.C.), 1871129
‘Cetonia,’ Schooner, 1873—Lines and Midship SectionMichael Ratsey, of Cowes142
The StartFrom a photograph by Debenham, of Cowes148
Chart of the Royal Southampton Yacht Club (Brambles and Lepe Course) 161
Diagram of Sail Curves, 40-Rating Class‘Thalassa’173
WhalesR. T. Pritchett189
The Swoop of the Gannet192
‘Black Pearl’s’ Cutter—Midship Section200
Main Sheet on Iron Horse 202
‘Black Pearl’s’ Cutter—Sail PlanRichard Perry & Co.203
S.S. ‘Aline’s’ Cutter 205
S.S. ‘Aline’s’ Cutter—Lines and Midship SectionEarl of Pembroke207
‘Black Pearl’s’ Cutter—Lines209
The Squall in Loch Scavaig, SkyeR. T. Pritchett217
‘Excuse Me’218
Self-unmoored219
Never ‘Moon’220
There is no Place like Home221
‘Cock-a-whoop,’ 1889—Lines and Midship SectionA. E. Payne234
‘Humming Bird,’ 1889A. E. Payne, from a photograph by Symonds236
‘Quinque,’ 5-Rater; Lt.-Col. Bucknill, R.E.From a photograph by Symonds, of Portsmouth242
‘The Babe,’ 1890—Lines and Midship SectionA. E. Payne244
‘Mosquito,’ 1892, with Roll ForesailJ. M. Soper249
‘Doreen,’ 1892From a photograph by Debenham, of Cowes252
‘Cyane,’ 1892From a private Kodak253
‘Windfall,’ 1891From a photograph by Adamson, of Rothesay254
‘Faugh-a-Ballagh,’ 1892—Lines and Midship SectionA. E. Payne256
Diagrams showing Improvements in Fore Sections of 2½ RatersJ. M. Soper257
Diagrams showing Improvements in Aft Sections of 2½ Raters258
Design for 1-Rater by J. M. Soper, 1892260
Design for a Centreboard 1-Rater by J. M. Soper, 1892262
‘Wee Winn,’ 1892From a photograph by Debenham, of Cowes265
‘Wee Winn’—LinesJ. M. Soper266
‘Daisy,’ 1892—Lines266
Chart of the Royal Southampton Yacht Club, ‘Brambles Course’ 283
The Drogue off the Kullen HeadR. T. Pritchett308
Danske Fishing-boat and Anchor311
Roskilde from the Fiord313
A Danske Craft315
A Good Craft for the Baltic317
Towing Head to Wind319
A Drogue321
Chart of the Dublin, Kingstown, and Mersey Course 327
‘Freda’R. T. Pritchett336
‘Challenge,’ 1876339
‘Minerva,’ 1888—Lines and Midship SectionFife of Fairlie368
‘Natica,’ 1892From a photograph by Adamson, of Rothesay374
In the ChannelR. T. Pritchett406

CHAPTER I

Yachts.

INTRODUCTION
By Sir Edward Sullivan, Bart.

Victoria Cup. 1893.

It is related that Chrysippus, a cynic, killed himself in order that he might sooner enjoy the delights of Paradise. Philosophers do queer things sometimes. Many who are not philosophers kill themselves in order to avoid the miseries of this world; but, as far as I know, this is the only case on record of a man killing himself from impatience to enjoy the pleasures of the next.

Ideas of Paradise are exceedingly various. To the ancients Paradise meant a dolce far niente in the Elysian Fields; to the North American Indians it means happy hunting grounds and plenty of fat buffalo. The Scythians believed in a Paradise of immortal drunkenness and drinking blood out of the skulls of their enemies, and the Paradise that to-day influences the belief of one-fourth of the human race is contained in Chapter X. of the Koran. To Madame de Chevreuse it meant chatting with her friends in the next world. To one friend of mine it was galloping for ever over a grass country without gates. To another it meant driving four horses, with Tim Carter seated at his side. To some, I believe, Paradise means yachting, and for my own part, I think a 200-ton schooner, a ten-knot breeze, and a summer sea hard to beat. Whether yachting approaches one’s conception of Paradise or not, I think there are very few of us who, if they do not suffer from that hopeless affection the mal de mer, do not more or less enjoy a life on the ocean wave; it is so fresh and life-giving and so various. ‘A home on the stormy deep’ we won’t say so much about. I have seen two or three storms at sea, but I have never found them pleasant; very much the contrary. There is grandeur, if you like, but there is also terror and horror.

As black as night she turned to white,

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