The Shores of the Adriatic / The Austrian Side, The Küstenlande, Istria, and Dalmatia

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THE SHORES OF THE ADRIATIC

THE AUSTRIAN SIDE

THE KÜSTENLANDE, ISTRIA, AND DALMATIA

By F. HAMILTON JACKSON, R.B.A.

Vice-President Of The Institute Of Decorative Designers Cantor Lecturer, Etc.

FULLY ILLUSTRATED WITH PLANS. DRAWINGS BY THE AUTHOR,
AND PHOTOGRAPHS TAKEN SPECIALLY FOR THIS WORK

LONDON JOHN MURRAY, ALBEMARLE STREET, W. 1908

PRINTED BY HAZELL, WATSON AND VINEY, LD., LONDON AND AYLESBURY.


PREFACE

This volume is complementary to that dealing with the Italian side of the Adriatic, and follows much the same lines. It has not been thought necessary to repeat what appeared there about the sea itself, but some further details on the subject have been added in an introductory chapter. The concluding chapter treats of the influence which the two coasts exerted on each other, and contains some hints as to certain archæological problems of great interest, which deserve fuller and more individual treatment than they can receive in such a work as the present.

In a country which still contains so much that is unfamiliar, so many mediæval survivals in customs and costume, and so much that is fine in scenery, architecture, and the decorative arts, the picturesque aspect of the country has been dwelt upon more than was the case in dealing with the Italian side, and the meticulous description of buildings has to a great extent been abandoned, except in cases where it was necessary for the full understanding of the deductions drawn from existing details. At the same time, matters of archæology have not been neglected, and the rich remains of mediæval goldsmiths’ work have received special attention. The costume, the customs, and the folk-lore of the Morlacchi are also treated of in considerable detail.

The determination of the Croat majority to stamp out the Italian language by insisting upon instruction in the schools being given solely in Croat will, in the course of a generation, make Italian a foreign language understood by few; and it seems wise for those who desire to visit Dalmatia to do so soon, while it is still understood and before Italian culture is forgotten.

The present work does not pretend to in any way rival Mr. T.G. Jackson’s classic volumes on the architecture of the country, in completeness of historical treatment or architectural detail. Though Sir Gardner Wilkinson had published a book on the country, and the brothers Adam’s full description of Diocletian’s Palace was well known to connoisseurs, he may be said to have practically discovered Dalmatia for the Englishman; and it is a proof of the excellence of his work that, though twenty years have elapsed since it was published, it has never been surpassed, and its value remains undiminished. To these volumes the author desires to acknowledge his indebtedness, as well as to the “Mittheilungen” of the Austrian Central Commission for the Conservation of Historical Monuments; the “Bullettino di Storia Dalmata,” conducted by Mgr. Buli? at Spalato; the “Atti” of the Istrian “Società di Archeologia e Storia Patria,” published at Parenzo; and the “Archeografo Triestino,” published at Trieste, all chronicling discoveries as they were made, and containing articles giving interesting and reliable information upon the history and antiquities of the coast. In addition, the following works have been consulted:

Freeman’s “Subject Lands of Venice”; Munro’s “Rambles and Studies in Bosnia and Herzegovina”; Neale’s “Travels in Dalmatia”; Villari’s “Ragusa”; Benussi’s “L’Istria”; Bianchi’s “Zara Cristiana” and “Antichità Romane e mediævale di Zara”; Mgr. Buli?’s “Guide to Spalato and Salona”; Caprin’s “Il Trecento a Trieste,” “Alpi Gulie,” and “L’Istria noblissima”; Carrara’s “La Dalmazia descritta”; Chiudina’s “Le Castella di Spalato”; Fabianich’s “La Dalmazia nè primi cinque secoli del Cristianesimo”; Fosco’s “La Cathedrale di Sebenico”; Franceschi’s “L’Istria”; Gelcich’s “Memorie storiche delle Bocche di Cattaro” and “Dello Sviluppo civile di Ragusa”; Lago’s “Memorie sulla Dalmazia”; Lucio’s “History of Dalmatia and Traù”; Ludwig and Molmenti’s “Vittore Carpaccio”; Mantegazza’s “L’Altra Sponda”; Modrich’s “La Dalmazia”; Pasini’s “Il Tesoro di S. Marco in Venezia”; Cav. G.B. di Rossi’s “La Capsella Argentea africana,” &c., and the two series of “Bullettino di Archeologia Cristiana”; Sabalich’s “Guida Archeologica di Zaza”; Tamaro’s “Le Citta dell’ Istria”; and volumes of the Zara “Annuario Dalmatico”; Bamberger’s “Blaues Meer und Schwarze Berge”; Danilo’s “Dalmatien”; “Die Monarchic in Wort und Bild”; Eitelberger von Edelberg’s “Gesammelte Kunsthistorischen Schriften”; Hauser’s “Spalato und die monumente Dalmatiens”; Heider’s “Mittelaltliche Kunst denkmale des Œsterreichischen Kaiserstaates”; Passarge’s “Dalmatien und Montenegro”; Petermann’s “Führer durch Dalmatien”; Tomasin’s “Die Volkstamme im Gebiete von Triest und in Istrien”; Von Warsberg’s “Dalmatien”; and Count Lanckoronski’s magnificent monograph of the Cathedral of Aquileia.

A small portion of the matter of this volume has appeared in The Builder and The Guardian, but has been revised and, to a great extent, rewritten. The author’s thanks are due to the proprietors for permission to republish these articles. He desires to express his thanks also to the Austrian Government especially, and to the ecclesiastical authorities, for special facilities very kindly afforded him for prosecuting his studies; to the Central Commission, for the loan of clichés of most of the plans; to the directorate of the Archeografo Triestino, for permission to reproduce the plan of the cathedral, Trieste; to the Istrian Archæological Society, for the plan of the three cathedrals of Parenzo, and for permission, very courteously given by the president, Dr. Amoroso, to use anything published by them on the subject; to Mgr. Buli?, Sig. Maionica, Curator of the Museum, Aquileia, and to Sig. Puschi, of the Museum, Trieste, for much information kindly given by word of mouth; and to Mr. Palmer, Librarian of the Art Library, South Kensington, for calling his attention to several books which were exceedingly useful.

The photographs (as in the Italian volume) are from the excellent negatives of Mr. Cooper Ashton, the travelling companion of many foreign archæological expeditions.


CONTENTS

    PAGE
  Preface v
  Lists of Illustrations and Plans xi-xv
I. Introductory Chapter 1
II. The Races and their Customs 6
III. Aquileia 23
IV. Grado 41
V. Grado to Trieste 54
VI. Historical Sketch of Istria 69
VII. Muggia to Pirano 79
VIII. Umaco to Parenzo 104
IX. Parenzo 107
X. To Pola by Sea 127
XI. To Pola by Land 133
XII. Pola 143
XIII. Characteristics of the Istrian Coast 160
XIV. Fiume and Veglia 163
XV. Ossero and Cherso 180
XVI. Historical Sketch of Dalmatia 187
XVII. Arbe 192
XVIII. Zara 205
XIX. Sebenico 245
XX. Traù and the Riviera dei Sette Castelli 262
XXI. Spalato 292
XXII. The Southern Group of Islands 316
XXIII. Ragusa 333
XXIV. The Bocche di Cattaro 369
XXV. The Reciprocal Influences of the Two Shores 397
  Index 409


ILLUSTRATIONS

I. FROM PHOTOGRAPHS

Herzegovinian Women at a Baker’s Shop in Ragusa Frontispiece
Statue of Venus, Museum, Aquileia 36
Pulpit in the Cathedral, Grado 45
Shipping at Trieste: the Canal, with the Greek Church and Sant’ Antonio 57
Pirano, from near the Cathedral 97
Marble Capital of the Sixth Century, Parenzo 113
High-altar, Parenzo, from the South Aisle 116
Wine-boats in the Fiumara Canal, Fiume 163
South Portion of Choir-screen, Cathedral, Veglia 173
The Harbour of Besca Nova 176
Chimneys at Besca Nova 178
Monstrance in Colleggiata, Ossero 184
Smergo Fishermen 186
Ascent to the Ramparts, Zara 205
Carving on Right Jamb of West Door, Cathedral, Traù 272
Interior of the Cathedral, Traù 276
Door of the “Atrio Rotondo”, Palace of Diocletian, Spalato 294
Interior of the Cathedral, Spalato 296
Panel from Guvina’s Doors of the Cathedral, Spalato 299
Stall-backs in Choir, Cathedral, Spalato 300
A Morlacco Family, between Salona and Clissa 314
Travelling at ease: among the Islands 329
Herzegovinian Charcoal Porter, Gravosa 334
Reliquary of the Head of S. Blaise, Cathedral Treasury, Ragusa 343
Cloister of the Dominican Convent, Ragusa 349
Lavabo in Sacristy of Franciscan Convent, Ragusa 353
Loggia of Rector’s Palace, Ragusa 354
Capital from the Loggia, Rector’s Palace, Ragusa 355
Æsculapius Capital, Rector’s Palace, Ragusa 356
Fountain of Onofrio di La Cava, Ragusa 357
Reliquary of the Head of S. Trifone, Cattaro 384
Albanian Horse-dealers, Cattaro 388

II. FULL-PAGE LINE DRAWINGS

Narthex of the Cathedral, Aquileia 35
A Corner in Grado 42
The Patriarch’s Throne, Cathedral, Grado 46
Choir-screen and Ambo, Muggia Vecchia 81
The “Fontico” and S. Giacorno, Capodistria 90
The Piazza da Ponte, Capodistria 92
The Inner Harbour, Pirano 94
Opus Sectile in the Apse, Cathedral, Parenzo 114
The Atrium and Western Façade, Cathedral, Parenzo 119
View across the Nave, Cathedral, Parenzo 121
An Istrian Farm-house 133
Interior of the Basilica, San Lorenzo in Pasenatico 134
Entrance to the Castle, Pisino 137
An Angle of the Castle, San Vincenti 139
Arch of the Sergii, Pola 145
The Amphitheatre, Pola 146
West Doorway, S. Francesco, Pola 154
Interior of the Cathedral, Veglia 171
In the Harbour, Besca Nova 175
The Main Street, Besca Nova 177
Lussin Grande 181
West Door of the Colleggiata, Ossero 183
The Landing-place, Arbe 193
The Porta Marina, Zara 207
North Door of Western Façade, Cathedral, Zara 220
Apse of S. Crisogono, Zara 230
Entrance to the Town of Nona 239
Eastern End of Cathedral, Sebenico 248
Late Venetian-Gothic Doorway, Sebenico 253
South-east Portion of Choir, Cathedral, Sebenico 254
Belfry of Greek Church, Sebenico 257
The Porta Marina and Custom House, Traù 265
The Porta S. Giovanni, Traù 266
A Decayed Palace, Traù 282
The Quay, Castel Vecchio 287
The Porta Aurea, Spalato 293
Italian Fruit and Vegetable Boats, Spalato 303
Cloister of S. Francesco, Spalato 305
Osteria at Salona 310
Basilica of the Christian Cemetery, Salona 312
Porta Pile, Ragusa 336
Torre Menze and Fort S. Lorenzo, Ragusa 337
La Sponza and Onofrio’s Fountain, Ragusa 359
The Ruined Bastion, Castelnuovo, Bocche di Cattaro 373
Dobrota, Bocche di Cattaro 378
Ciborium of S. Trifone, Cattaro 383
S. Luka, Cattaro 385
The Scuola Nautica, Cattaro 386

III. LINE DRAWINGS IN TEXT

Knocker of the Rector’s Palace, Ragusa On Title
Antique Statue in the Museum, Aquileia 37
Figure of S. Giusto, Campanile of the Cathedral, Trieste 63
Arco di Riccardo, Trieste 65
West End of the Church, Muggia Vecchia 80
Knocker on Palazzo Tacco, Capodistria 91
Greek Benedictional Cross, Parenzo 117
Sarcophagus of S. Eufemia, Rovigno 130
Wayside Chapel outside San Vincenti 140
Stall on the Wine-quay, Fiume 164
Veglia, showing the Castle Towers 172
Reliquary of the Head of Sant Christopher 196
Arbe, from the Shore 203
Morlacco Girl, Zara 212
Going to Market, Zara 213
Altar of Sant’ Anastasia, Zara 225
Reliquary of Sant’ Orontius, Zara 226
Reliquary of the Clothes of Our Lord, S. Maria Nuova, Zara 234
Costume of Sebenico 257
Late Gothic Lintel at Traù 283
A Quaint Costume, Traù 286
Reliquaries and Chalice, Treasury, Spalato Cathedral 297
Morse in the Treasury, Spalato Cathedral 298
Porta Maggiore, Lesina 319
West Door of the Cathedral, Curzola 326
Head Reliquary in Cathedral, Ragusa 345
Reliquary of the Jaw of S. Stephen of Hungary 346
A Corner of the Walls, Cattaro 388
Montenegrins in the Market, Cattaro 392
Early Greek Ship, from Millingen’s Vases Tailpiece

IV. PLANS AND SECTIONS

Plan of the Cathedral, Aquileia 28
Plan of the Cathedral, Trieste 60
Plan of Pulpit, Muggia Vecchia 82
Plan of the Three Basilicas, Parenzo 109
Plan of S. Maria Formosa, Pola 148
Plans of S. Donate, Zara 214
Plans and Section of S. Lorenzo, Zara Between pages 216-217
Plan of Foundations discovered on the Riva Nuova, Zara 218
Plan of the Cathedral, Zara 223
Plan of Cathedral Crypt, Zara 224
Plan of S. Nicolò, Nona 242
Plan and Sections, S. Barbara, Traù 268
Plan of the Cathedral, Traù 271
Plan of Cathedral and Campanile, Spalato 295
Plan of the Dominican Convent, Ragusa 348
Plan and Elevation of one Bay of Cloister, Dominican Convent, Ragusa 352
Plan of La Sponza, Ragusa 358
Plan of the Cathedral, Cattaro 381
Map of Istria and Dalmatia At end of book


I

INTRODUCTORY CHAPTER

The two shores of the Adriatic are totally different in their natural characteristics; the western being almost islandless and destitute of harbours, while the eastern is fringed by an almost continuous chain of islands and possesses several magnificent harbours which communicate with the open sea by narrow channels easily fortified, the rocks rising precipitously from the water along the greater part of the coast, whereas on the Italian side there is an equally continuous strip of alluvial plain between the foothills and the sea.

The Adriatic was once bounded by a kind of ridge stretching from Monte Gargano to Albania. North of this line the depth is much less than in the Ionian Sea. When the surface of the earth sank, the Dalmatian islands were formed by the letting in of the sea. The depth near Parenzo is about 120 ft.; in the Quarnero, near Fiume, 195 ft.; between Cherso and Arbe, 335 ft.; and south-west of the island Zuri (some 24 miles from the mainland), about 700 ft. Depths as great as 335 ft. to 490 ft. are, however, not very common within nine miles of the mainland. In the Bocche di Cattaro the depth near the mouth is 165 ft., but half a mile west of the Punta d’Ostro, 335 ft. North of the line from Monte Gargano to Pelagosa, Cazza, and Curzola it is never as much as 780 ft.; south-east of this line the bottom sinks so much that between Cattaro and Brindisi it reaches a depth of over 5,000 ft. The tide is scarcely perceptible, and the currents are very slight. The land is still sinking, as is proved by the Roman sarcophagi found beneath the water at Vranjic and the submerged roads between Aquileia and Grado; while there are records of the destruction of ancient towns from sudden subsidences, as that of Cissa, near Rovigno. The subsidence has been calculated as about a yard in 1,000 years. Cluverius proves from Ptolemy that in antiquity the name Adriatic only applied to that part of the gulf which lay to the north of a line between Monte Gargano and Durazzo. A passage of Strabo, describing the people of Epirus, runs: “The Adriatic being ended, the Ionian commences, the first shore of which is in the neighbourhood of Epidamnus and Apollonia.” When Venice conquered Durazzo the limits of the Adriatic were extended, and it was thenceforth called the Gulf of Venice. In 1859 the almost incredible fact is recorded that it was frozen for several days!

The Austrian provinces which lie along the coast are, commencing at the north, the Küstenlande, Istria, and Dalmatia. In the first the Julian Alps form a great boundary wall to the plain of the Isonzo, from which the ground rises between Monfalcone and Nabresina to the stony district of the Karst. The Istrian ranges are spurs from this lofty plateau, the chain culminating in Monte Maggiore, north-west of Fiume. All these heights belong to the Julian Alps. Beyond Fiume, southwards, there are three principal mountain chains, all of which have much the same formation of limestone, pale brownish or grey in colour, with fossils and streaks of other colours. The first is the Dinaric Alps or Velebits, a continuation of the Julian Alps. These separate Dalmatia from Bosnia as far as Imoschi, where they enter Herzegovina, finally joining the Montenegrin chain. The chain of the shore commences on the left bank of the Kerka and extends to the Narenta, which cuts it. It runs as far as Trebinje, beyond the river. The Montenegrin mountains, which are so impressive above the Bocche di Cattaro, joining with those of the Herzegovina, make the third chain. The islands and rocks in the sea appear to be submarine branches of the littoral chain; the strata lie in the same direction—in the North Dalmatian islands to the north-west, in the Southern to the west. On the peninsula of Sabbioncello they lie partly in one and partly in the other direction. The former connection between the islands and the mainland is proved by the remains of rhinoceros, horse, and stag in the diluvial bone breccias of Lesina, and the survival of the jackal in Giuppana, Curzola, and Sabbioncello. Geologists hold that the deeply cut bays of Sabbioncello and Gravosa, as well as of the Bocche di Cattaro, and the step-shaped sinkings of the northern and eastern limestone mountains towards the Adriatic basin are signs of the tearing away of the islands from the mainland, perhaps through the destruction of the permeable strata.

These generally show in their forms the craggy and stony character of the Dinaric Alps, rising perpendicularly from the water on the side of the prevailing wind, and without vegetation. On the other side are softer hills and plains with southern vegetation, the aromatic scents from which are carried by the breeze. There are about twenty large islands, some of which are over 30 miles long; but the number may be raised to a hundred by counting in the small ones. They are generally in groups or chains, though some are isolated. The water is generally deep up to the shore, so there are very few sandbanks.

The greater portion of the naked surface of the land is formed of limestone and dolomites, which are closely related: there are also, on the lower levels, grey or red sands, among which schistous loams of uniform colour predominate. These two formations stretch from one end of the province to the other in sloping beds. They are interrupted here and there by loam and schistous clay and horizontal beds of a kind of limestone: below these are lignites and chalky limestone, in which shells are found belonging to a later formation. The oldest formations are the volcanic mountains near Knin and on Lissa. Next follow the trias strata, as under the Velebits and westwards from Sinj, then the sandstone beds, the different eocene beds and alluvial strata, as in the plain of Dernis, north of the Vrana Lake, by Nona and Imoski. The principal characteristic of the Karst district (to which Dalmatia belongs geologically) is the way the water flows, sometimes above, sometimes under ground. Where the woods were cut down to supply the Romans and Venetians with material for constructing their fleets, and where natural afforestation has been stopped by the feeding of sheep and goats, the red earth has either been washed away by the rains or blown away by the winds, so that it is only in the hollows that cultivation can be carried on.

The bitter north wind, the Bora, is the curse of the district. In the island of Arbe it sometimes blows even in June and July, stripping the vineyards as if hundreds of men had been at work, and carrying the salt spray all over the island, to the great detriment of vegetation. It is sometimes strong enough to upset pedestrians, and it is said that if it were not for it, there would be neither winter nor cold in the Dalmatian littoral. On the heights winter begins in November and lasts till April, with heavy snowfalls; but on the coast spring begins in February, and winter only at the beginning of December. The summer, which commences in May, is usually rainless, with the heat tempered by sea-breezes, though at the end of August heavy rains commence, and in autumn the frequent changes of temperature are dangerous. The flora consists of nearly 2,500 species, described by Visiani in his “Flora Dalmatica.” The aquatic flora contains nearly 700 varieties, many of the seaweeds being exclusively Dalmatian. Views on the coast of Ragusa, or at Castelnuovo, in the Bocche, resemble those of Sardinia and Sicily. On one side may be seen green meadows, fruit trees, flowing water, cornfields, beechwoods, &c.; on the other, olive groves, thickets of arbutus, hedge plants the height of a tree, myrtles, and bay; on the naked rock aloes grow and the opuntia; in gardens, dwarf and date-palms, unprotected cycas revoluta, and orange and lemon trees; and wide valleys are filled with lofty carob trees—so close are the boundaries between the flora of middle Europe and of the Mediterranean. Almonds flower in December, and peas and beans are often gathered at Christmas. At Cannosa the date-palm ripens its fruit, and flowers are always to be seen. The Euphorbia Dendroides grows as high as in Crete, and rosemary bushes are frequently up to the shoulder of a man. In August the Syrian hibiscus is violet-red and the scarlet-red arbutus fruit hangs till Christmas. On Monte Marjan, near Spalato, where Diocletian had his parks, the sheltered aspect creates a tropical climate. Wild aloes grow 6 ft. high, and in midwinter numbers of field flowers may be picked as if it were spring.


II

THE RACES AND THEIR CUSTOMS

The people of Istria and Dalmatia are a very mixed race, as might be expected from the history of the countries. On these shores and islands were Greek colonies and Roman municipia, which have left their trace in the names of places and families. Greek colonies were at Issa (Lissa), Pharia (Lesina), Epetium (Stobre?), Tragurium (Traù), Melita (Meleda), Corcyra (Curzola), Buta (Budua), and Ambrachia (Brazza), to name some of those which have survived as towns to the present day. Roman family names occur especially round Spalato, such as Lutia (Lucio), Cæpia (Cippico), Valeria (Valeri), Junia (Giunio), Coceia (Coceich), Marcia (Marce), Cassia (Cassio), Cælia (Celio), and Statilia (Statileo). Byzantine names testify to the rule of Byzantium, such as Paleologo, Lascaris, Andronico, Grisogono, Catacumano. In Istria there is a considerable admixture of German blood; on the rocks of Zara the Crusaders abandoned sick Frenchmen; whilst thither and to Spalato also came Ghibellines in exile. Franks, Croats, Bosniaks, Hungarians, Genoese, Neapolitans, and above all, Venetians have held sway over portions of the coast at different times. Families of Hungarian and Bosnian gentlemen established the free commune of Poglizza; exiles from Spain, Jews, for the most part driven out in 1492, established themselves at Spalato and Ragusa; Lombards descended upon the coasts and islands; and Venetians commenced to establish themselves in Dalmatia in the eleventh century, Istria coming even earlier more or less under their influence. In 1552, in the Council of Zara, out of seventeen noble families more than two-thirds were of Italian descent; and at Lesina the proportion was even greater. At Zara the Italians still preponderate, but the Slav element is in the majority in the greater part of Dalmatia, and even in the country parts of Istria. There are also many French, Hungarians, Bosniaks, Herzegovinians, Germans, Swiss, and gypsies, the Slav majority increasing towards the south.

In Istria the present inhabitants may be divided into Italians, Roumanians, and Slavs: to the last division belong the Morlacchi, the Tschitsches, Slovens, and Croats. The Italians are the most intelligent portion of the population, and are craftsmen, large occupiers of land, merchants, and sailors. They are the descendants of those who were subjects of Venice from the fourteenth century till the fall of the Republic. The Slovens were in Istria as early as the eighth century, and Paulus Diaconus mentions them as being near Cividale. Records exist of Croats raids in the tenth century, whilst further south there were two great immigrations—the first, in the seventh century, by the “Belocroats,” called by Porphyrogenitus, Croats, from the banks of the Elbe, descendants of whom may to-day be found in the islands; and the second, in the fourteenth century, by the people of Rascia, who now inhabit much of the interior and are known as “Morlacchi,” a name derived from the Slav “Mauro vlach,” the black Wallachs.

According to Lucio, who refers to William of Tyre, all Dalmatians used the Roman language until 1200. After the Croats came down, the name of “Dalmatian,” strictly speaking, belonged only to the cities of Zara, Traù, Spalato, and Ragusa, to the western islands of Dalmatia, and to Lissa and Lagosta—Eastern Dalmatia was a Servian province; Western, a Croatian. It is known that Slavs came in 1463 to Salvore, in 1526 to the district of Rovigno, in 1549 to the district of Cittanova, Montona, Parenzo, and Pola, in 1595 to Fontane, in 1624 and 1634 (the plague years) to Fillipano, 1647 to near Pola, and 1650 to Peroi, near Fasano. Those now there came from the Bocche and Montenegro, settled in 1658-1659 by Doge Giovanni Pesaro, after the great plague. The women still wear the ancient costume. The Slavs are most numerous between Dragogna and Trieste. Procopius gives an interesting description of them worth quoting: “The two nations of the Autars and the Slavs know no monarchical government; but from ancient times live freely in common fashion. They take all questions of great importance or difficulty to a common national council. The customs of the two nations are alike in everything else. These barbarians believe, by an article of faith transmitted from their ancestors, that, among many, there is one sole master of all things, whom they look upon as the author of the thunder; and to him they sacrifice bulls and other victims. They do not know what the goddess Fortune may be, nor believe that she has any influence on human affairs. When they feel themselves threatened by death, either by illness or wounds given in battle, they are told to promise a sacrifice to God if they escape the danger. Then, if they soon get about again, they fulfil the vow, firmly persuaded that by it they have recovered their health. They offer worship to woods, to nymphs, and other genii, immolating victims to them, and prophesying in the act. They live in rough huts far away from each other, and often change the situation. The greater part of them fight on foot, armed with shield and with darts, but without corslet. Some of them do not wear their ordinary clothes in battle, but draperies which scarcely reach to the thigh, and so they present themselves to the enemy. They all speak the same barbarous tongue, nor differ much in appearance, but are all tall and powerful. The colour of the flesh and the hair is neither vermilion nor brown, but reddish. They live a somewhat fatiguing life, somewhat neglected and uncultivated, like the Massagetae, and, like them, on sordid food. They are not cunning, nor evildoers, but follow the customs of the Huns in sacking and rapine. They possess vast lands and occupy the greater part of the further bank of the Danube.” They have retained many characteristics of an earlier age, though not of the period of Procopius.

The men are tall and muscular, with strongly marked features. Their eyes are generally either grey or blue, the forehead broad and prominent, the teeth white and strong, the hair sometimes blonde, but ranging through all shades to black, and the countenance intelligent and expressive. The boys herd the flocks barefoot and half naked, so that their skin is always bronzed, and the men generally have bare breasts. Their sight and hearing are remarkably keen, and in Dalmatia they can make themselves heard from one hill to another, a feat which is partly owing to the quality of the air. Their excellent health enables them to support all kinds of hardships; they sleep out of doors (covering the head), except in winter, at which season they stay a good deal by the fire, though they may be seen in the city with icicles on their hairy chests. They have neither stoves, chimneys, nor glass in the windows. A case of a monk has been recorded, who, at the age of 105, made watches and read with the naked eye, ate and drank, walked and “wept” like a boy of twenty. The costume is distinctive and, with slight variations, is worn throughout Dalmatia. In Istria there are considerable differences both in colour and form. “The Morlacco in full dress has on his head the kapa, a cap of scarlet cloth, with black embroidery on the border and hanging fringe on one side; in some districts bordering on Bosnia a rich band of silk or coloured wools is twisted round it. Over the skirt of rough linen (the kosulja), open to show the breast, is the krozet, a waistcoat crossed on the breast with flat buttons of silver, or tin, and embroidery; it is bound to the sides with a girdle (pas) made of red strings. The trousers (benevrechi) are of a coarse blue cloth fitting to the legs and very tight at the calf, below which they are split up and fastened by sponje, copper or silver hooks. The stockings (nazubei) are of wool of various patterns. The shoes (opanci) have a sole of ox-leather and uppers of strips of dried sheeps’ skin (opute); a longer oputa passes several times round the ankle and holds the shoe firm; it turns up at the toe and looks quite Oriental. Instead of the krozet, or over it, some wear the jacerma, a sleeveless red cloth jacket, covered in front with little discs of tin (siliki), or large balls of silver (toke), or by rows of coins. And over t