Carpentry for Boys / In a Simple Language, Including Chapters on Drawing, Laying Out Work, Designing and Architecture With 250 Original Illustrations

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The “How-to-do-it” Books

CARPENTRY FOR BOYS


THE “HOW-TO-DO-IT” BOOKS

CARPENTRY FOR BOYS

in simple language, including
chapters on drawing, laying out
work, designing and architecture

WITH 250 ORIGINAL ILLUSTRATIONS

By J. S. ZERBE, M.E.

AUTHOR OF
ELECTRICITY FOR BOYS
PRACTICAL MECHANICS FOR BOYS
THE NEW YORK BOOK COMPANY
New York
Copyright, 1914, by

THE NEW YORK BOOK COMPANY


CONTENTS

LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS
INTRODUCTORY
I. Tools and Their Uses Page 5

Knowledge of Tools. A Full Kit of Tools. The Hatchet. The Claw Hammer. About Saws—Cross-cut, Rip Saw, Back Saw. Planes—Jack Plane, Smoothing Plane, Pore Plane. Gages. Chisels—Firmer Chisel. Trusses. Saw Clamps. The Grindstone. Oilstone. Miter Box. The Work Bench.

II. How to Grind and Sharpen Tools Page 16

Care of Tools—-First Requisites. Saws—How to Set. Saw-set Errors. Saw Setting Block. Filing. The Angle of Filing. Filing Pitch. Saw Clamps. Filing Suggestions. The File. Using the File. The Grindstone. In the Use of Grindstones. Correct Way of Holding Tool in Grinding. Care of Stone. Incorrect Way to Hold Tool. Way to Revolve or Turn Grindstone. The Plane. The Gage. Chisels. General Observations.

III. How to Hold and Handle Tools Page 29

On the Holding of Tools. The Saw. How to Start a Saw. Sawing on a Line. The First Stroke. The Starting Cut for Cross-cutting. Forcing a Saw. The Stroke. The Chinese Saw. Things to Avoid. The Plane. Angle for Holding Planes. Errors to be Avoided. The Gage. Holding the Gage. The Draw-knife.

IV. How to Design Articles Page 39

Fundamentals of Designing. The Commercial Instinct. First Requirements of Designing. Conventional Styles. The Mission Style. Cabinets. Harmony of Parts. Harmony of Wood.

V. How work is Laid Out Page 43

Concrete Examples of Work. Dimensions. Laying Out a Table. The Top. The Mortises. The Facing Boards. The Tenons. Tools Used. Chamfered Tenons. The Frame. The Drawer Support. The Table Frame. The Top. The Drawer. How Any Structure is Built Up. Observations About Making a Box. Points. Beveling and Mitering. Proper Terms. Picture Frames. Dovetail Points. Box Points. First Steps in Dovetailing. Cutting Out the Spaces. Tools Used in Laying Out Mortises and Tenons.

VI. The Uses of the Compass and the Square Page 59

The Compass. Determining Angles. Definition of Degrees. Degrees Without a Compass. How Degrees are Calculated by the Dividers.

VII. How the Different Structural Parts are Designated Page 65

Importance of Proper Designation. How to Explain Mechanical Forms. Defining Segment and Sector. Arcade, Arch, Buttress, Flying Buttress, Chamfer, Cotter, Crenelated, Crosses, Curb Roof, Cupola, Crown Post, Corbels, Dormer, Dowel, Drip, Detent, Extrados, Engrailed, Facet, Fret, Fretwork, Frontal, Frustrums, Fylfot, Gambrel Roof, Gargoyle, Gudgeon, Guilloche. Half Timbered, Hammer Beam, Header, Hip Roof, Hood Molding, Inclave, Interlacing Arch, Inverted, Inverted Arch, Key Stone, King Post, Label, Louver, Lintel, Lug, M-Roof, Mansard Roof, Newel, Parquetry, Peen, Pendant, Pendastyle, Pedestal, Plinth, Portico, Plate, Queen Post, Quirk Molding, Re-entering Angle, Rafter, Scarfing, Scotia Molding, Sill, Skewback, Spandrel, Strut, Stud, Stile, Tie Beam, Timber, Trammel, Turret, Transom, Valley Roof.

VIII. Drawing and Its Utility Page 73

Fundamentals in Drawing. Representing Objects. Forming Lines and Shadows. Analysis of Lines and Shadings. How to Show Plain Surfaces. Concave Surfaces. Convex Surfaces. Shadows from a Beam. Flat Effects. The Direction of Light. Raised Surfaces. Depressed Surfaces. Full Shading. Illustrating Cube Shading. Shading Effect. Heavy Lines. Perspectives. True Perspective of a Cube. Isometric Cube. Flattened Perspective. Technical Designations. Sector and Segment. Terms of Angles. Circles and Curves. Irregular Curves. Ellipses and Ovals. Focal Points. Produced Line. Spirals, Perpendicular and Vertical. Signs to Indicate Measurement. Definitions. Abscissa. Angle. Apothegm. Apsides or Apsis. Chord. Cycloid. Conoid. Conic Section. Ellipsoid. Epicycloid. Evolute. Flying Buttress. Focus. Gnomes. Hexagon. Hyperbola. Hypothenuse. Incidental. Isosceles. Triangle. Parabola. Parallelogram. Pelecoid. Polygons. Pyramid. Rhomb. Sector. Segment. Sinusoid. Tangent. Tetrahedron. Vertex.

IX. Moldings, with Practical Illustrations in Embellishing Work Page 93

Moldings. The Basis of Moldings. The Simplest Moldings. The Astragal. The Cavetto. The Ovolo. The Torus. The Apothegm. The Cymatium. The Ogee. Ogee Recta. Ogee Reversa. The Reedy. The Casement. The Roman-Doric Column. Lesson from the Doric Column. Applying Molding. Base. Embellishments. Straight-faced Molding. Plain Molding. Base. Diversified Uses. Shadows Cast by Moldings.

X. An Analysis of Tenoning, Mortising, Rabbeting and Beading Page 104

Where Mortises Should be Used. Depth of Mortises. Rule for Mortises. True Mortise Work. Steps in Cutting Mortises. Things to Avoid in Mortising. Lap-and-Butt Joints. Scarfing. The Tongue and Groove. Beading. Ornamental Bead Finish. The Bead and Rabbet. Shading with Beads and Rabbets.

XI. House Building Page 113

House Building. The Home and Embellishments. Beauty Not Ornamentation. Plain Structures. Colonial Type. The Roof the Keynote. Bungalow Types. General House Building. Building Plans. The Plain Square-Floor Plan. The Rectangular Plan. Room Measurements. Front and Side Lines. The Roof. Roof Pitch. The Foundation. The Sills. The Flooring Joist. The Studding. Setting Up. The Plate. Intermediate Studding. Wall Headers. Ceiling Joist. Braces. The Rafters. The Gutter. Setting Door and Window Frames. Plastering and Finish Work.

XII. Bridges, Trussed Work and Like Structures Page 130

Bridges. Self-supporting Roofs. Common Trusses. The Vertical Upright Truss. The Warren Girder. The Bowstring Girder. Fundamental Truss Forms.

XIII. The Best Woods for the Beginner Page 134

The Best Woods. Soft Woods. Hard Woods. The Most Difficult Woods. The Hard-ribbed Grain in Wood. The Easiest Working Woods. Differences in the Working of Woods. Forcing Saws in Wood.

XIV. Wood Turning Page 138

Advantages of Wood Turning. Simple Turning Lathe. The Rails. The Legs. Centering Blocks. The Tail-stock. The Tool Rest. Materials. The Mandrel. Fly-wheel. The Tools Required.

XV. On the Use of Stains Page 147

Soft Wood. Use of Stains. Stains as Imitations. Good Taste in Staining. Great Contrasts Bad. Staining Contrasting Woods. Hard Wood Imitations. Natural Effects. Natural Wood Stains. Polishing Stained Surfaces.

XVI. The Carpenter and the Architect Page 152
XVII. Useful Articles to Make Page 155

Common Bench. Its Proportions. Square Top Stool. Folding Blacking Box. Convenient Easel. Hanging Book-rack. Sad Iron Holder. Bookcase. Wood-box. Parallel Bars for Boys’ Use. Mission Writing Desk. Screen Frame. Mission Chair. Grandfather’s Clock. Knockdown and Adjustable Bookcase. Coal Scuttle Frame or Case. Mission Arm Chair. Dog-house. Settle, With Convenient Shelves. Towel Rack. Sofa Framework.

XVIII. Special Tools and Their Uses Page 170

Bit and Level Adjuster. Miter Boxes. Swivel Arm Uprights. Movable Stops. Angle Dividers. “Odd Job” Tool. Bit Braces. Ratchet Mechanism. Interlocking Jaws. Steel Frame Breast Drills. Horizontal Boring. 3-Jaw Chuck. Planes. Rabbeting, Beading and Matching. Cutter Adjustment. Depth Gage. Slitting Gage. Dovetail Tongue and Groove Plane. Router Planes. Bottom Surfacing. Door Trim Plane.

XIX. Roofing Trusses Page 185

Characteristics of Trusses. Tie Beams. Ornamentation. Objects of Beams, Struts and Braces. Utilizing Space. Types of Structures. Gambrel Roof. Purlin Roof. The Princess Truss. Arched, or Cambered, Tie Beam Truss. The Mansard. Scissors Beam. Braced Collar Beam. Rib and Collar Truss. Hammer-beam Truss. Flying Buttress.

XX. On the Construction of Joints Page 197

Definition and Uses. Different Types. Bridle Joint. Spur Tenon. Saddle Joints. Joggle Joint. Heel Joints. Stub Tenon. Tusk Tenon. Double Tusk Tenon. Cogged Joints. Anchor Joints. Deep Anchor Joints.

XXI. Some Mistakes and a Little Advice in Carpentry Page 205

Lessons From Mistakes. Planing the Edge of a Board Straight. Planing it Square. Planing to Dimensions. Holding the Plane. How it Should be Run on the Edge of the Board. Truing With the Weight of the Plane. A Steady Grasp. In Smoothing Boards. Correct Sand-papering. Gluing. Removing Surplus Glue. Work Edge and Work Side. The Scribing and Marking Line. Finishing Surfaces. Sawing a Board Square. The Stroke of the Saw. Sawing Out of True.

GLOSSARY OF WORDS
THE “HOW-TO-DO-IT” BOOKS

LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS

FIG.
1. A typical work bench Frontispiece
  PAGE
2. Hatchet 6
3. Hammer 7
4. Common saw 7
5. Plane 8
6. Jack plane bit 9
6a. Fore plane bit 10
7a. Firmer chisel 11
Mortising chisel 12
8. Trestle 12
9. Miter box 13
10. Incorrect saw setting 17
10a. Correct saw setting 17
11. Saw setting device 17
12. Filing angle 18
13. Rip saw 19
14. Cross cut 20
15. Filing clamp 21
16. Grindstone 23
17. Correct manner of holding tool 24
18. Incorrect way of holding tool 24
19. Gage 26
20. Starting a saw 31
21. Wrong sawing angle 32
22. Correct sawing angle 33
23. Thrust cut 34
24. Chinese saw 34
25. Moving angle for plane 35
26. Holding gage 36
27. Laying out table leg 43
28. The first marking line 44
29. Scribing mortise line 44
30. The corner mortises 44
31. The side rail 46
32. Scribing the tenons 46
33. Cross scoring 47
34. The tenon 47
35. Finishing the tenon 47
36. The tenon and mortise 48
37. The drawer support 48
38. Drawer cleats 49
39. Assembled table frame 50
40. The top 51
41. The drawer 52
42. Bevel joint 53
43. Miter joint 53
44. Picture frame joint 54
45. Initial marks for dovetails 55
46. End marks for dovetails 55
47. Angles for dovetails 55
48. Cutting out recesses for dovetails 56
49. Tongues for dovetails 56
50. Recess for dovetails 56
51. Determining angles 61
52. Marking degrees 63
53. Angles from base lines 63
54. Stepping off spaces 63
55. Arcade 67
56. Arch 67
57. Buttress 67
58. Chamfer 67
59. Cooter 67
60. Crenelated 67
61. Crosses 67
62. Curb roof 67
63. Cupola 67
64. Console 67
65. Corbels 67
66. Dormer 67
67. Dowel 67
68. Drips 67
69. Detail 68
70. Extrados 68
71. Engrailed 68
72. Facet 68
73. Fret 68
74. Frontal 68
75. Frustrums 68
76. Fylfat 68
77. Gambrel 68
78. Gargoyle 68
79. Gudgeon 68
80. Guilloche 68
81. Half timbered 68
82. Hammer beam 68
83. Haunches 69
84. Header 69
85. Hip roof 69
86. Hood molding 69
87. Inclave 69
88. Interlacing arch 69
89. Invected 69
90. Inverted arch 69
91. Keystone 69
92. King post 69
93. Label 69
94. Louver 69
95. Lintel 70
96. Lug 70
97. M-roof 70
98. Mansard roof 70
99. Newel post 70
100. Parquetry 70
101. Peen, or pein 70
102. Pendant 70
103. Pentastyle 70
104. Pedestal 70
105. Pintle 70
106. Portico 70
107. Plate 70
108. Queen post 71
109. Quirk molding 71
110. Re-entering 71
111. Rafter 71
112. Scarfing 71
113. Scotia molding 71
114. Sill 71
115. Skew back 71
116. Spandrel 71
117. Strut 71
118. Stud, studding 71
119. Stile 72
120. Trammel 72
121. Turret 72
122. Transom 72
123. Valley roof 72
125. Plain line 74
126. Concave shading 74
127. Convex shading 74
128. Wave shading 75
129. Light past concave surface 75
130. Light past convex surface 75
131. Plain surface 75
132. Outlines 76
133. Raised surface 77
134. Depressed surface 77
135. Shading raised surfaces 78
136. Shading depressed surfaces 78
137. Plain cubical outline 79
138. Indicating cube 79
139. Confused lines 79
140. Heavy horizontal lines 80
141. Heavy vertical lines 80
142. Isometric cube 81
143. Cube and circle 81
144. Flattened perspective 82
145. Angles in isometric cube 83
146. Plain circle 84
147. Sphere shading 84
148. Drawing regular ellipse 86
149. Drawing irregular ellipse 88
150. Drawing spiral 89
151. Abscissa 90
152. Angle 91
153. Apothegm 91
154. Apsides, or apsis 91
155. Chord 91
156. Convolute 91
157. Conic sections 91
158. Conoid 91
159. Cycloid 91
160. Ellipsoid 91
161. Epicycloid 91
162. Evolute 91
163. Focus 91
164. Gnome 91
165. Hyperbola 91
167. Hypothenuse 91
168. Incidence 92
169. Isosceles triangle 92
170. Parabola 92
171. Parallelogram 92
172. Pelecoid 92
173. Polygons 92
174. Pyramid 92
175. Quadrant 92
176. Quadrilaterale 92
177. Rhomb 92
178. Sector 92
179. Segment 92
180. Sinusoid 92
181. Tangent 92
182. Tetrahedron 92
183. Vertex 92
184. Volute 92
185. Band (molding)e 94
186. Astragal (molding) 94
187. Cavetto (molding) 94
188. Ovolo (molding) 94
189. Torus (molding) 95
190. Apophyges (molding) 95
191. Cymatium (molding) 95
192. Ogee-recta (molding) 95
193. Ogee-reversa (molding) 96
194. Bead (molding) 96
195. Casement (molding) 97
196. The Doric column 98
197. Front of cabinet 100
198. Facia board 100
199. Molding on facia board 100
200. Ogee-recta on facia 101
201. Trim below facia 101
202. Trim below ogee 101
203. Trim above base 102
204. Trim above base molding 102
205. Shadows cast by plain moldings 103
206. Mortise and tenon joint 105
207. Incorrect mortising 105
208. Steps in mortising 106
209. The shoulders of tenons 108
210. Lap-and-butt joint 108
211. Panel joint 109
212. Scarfing 109
213. Tongue and groove 110
214. Beading 110
215. Outside beading finish 110
216. Edge beading 111
217. Corner beading 111
218. Point beading 111
219. Round edge beading 111
220. Beading and molding 111
221. First square house p